County of the Republic of Ireland, in the province of Munster, divided into the administrative areas of North and South Ridings; county town Clonmel; area 4,255 sq km/1,643 sq mi; population (2002) Tipperary North 61,000; Tipperary South 79,100. It includes part of the Golden Vale, a fertile dairy-farming region. Agriculture is the chief industry; barley and oats are the main crops, but potatoes and turnips are also grown. Cattle are reared in large numbers, and there are flour mills and butter factories. There is also horse and greyhound breeding. Other main towns are Cahir, Carrick-on-Suir, Cashel, Templemore, Tipperary, Thurles, Nenagh, and Roscrea. Major tourist attractions in the county include the Rock of Cashel (a group of medieval buildings including a 12th-century round tower and 13th-century cathedral) and Cahir Castle (15th century).
History The county is one of those supposed to have been created by King John in 1210. It was granted to the Earls of Ormond in 1328, and was the last of the Irish palatine counties. In 1848 it was the scene of the Young Ireland rising, an abortive rebellion staged by a group who wanted to have repealed the Act of Union that had been introduced in January 1800 by the British prime minister William Pitt.
Historical remains There are many interesting castles and ecclesiastical buildings in various parts of the county, notably at Cashel, where there are the 12th-century ruins of a cathedral and towers; at Athassel, where there is an Augustinian priory (12th century); at Holy Cross, where there is a Cistercian abbey, founded in 1180 and now a working parish church after 400 years of dereliction; and at Fethard, where there is a Templar's Castle (15th century). Moor Abbey (15th century) stands at the head of the Glen of Aherlow.
Topography Tipperary is bounded by counties Galway and Offaly in the north, Cork and Waterford to the south, Laois and Kilkenny to the east, and Clare and Limerick to the west. The border with County Clare is formed by the River Shannon. The other principal river is the Suir, which flows through the centre of the county and forms the boundary with County Waterford; other rivers include the Little Brosna and the Nenagh. Lough Derg is the county's main lake. To the north and west lies a mountainous region, the highest point of which is Slieve Kimalta, or Keeper Hill (672 m/2,205 ft); also in the north are the Silvermine Mountains (highest peak Knockaunderrig, 490 m/1,609 ft). To the south lie the Galty Mountains (highest point Mount Galtymore, 920 m/3,018 ft, shared with County Limerick), and the Comeragh and Knockmealdown Mountains; further east are Slievehamon (804 m/2,368 ft) and the Slieveardagh Hills.
Natural resources Lead and zinc are mined, and limestone is quarried.
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