Skip to main content Skip to Search Box

Definition: theosophy from The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia with Atlas and Weather Guide

Any religious or philosophical system based on intuitive insight into the nature of the divine, but especially that of the Theosophical Society, founded in New York in 1875 by Madame Blavatsky and H S Olcott. It was based on Hindu ideas of karma and reincarnation, with nirvana as the eventual aim.

Summary Article: theosophy
From The Columbia Encyclopedia

(thēŏs'Әfē) [Gr.,=divine wisdom], philosophical system having affinities with mysticism and claiming insight into the nature of God and the world through direct knowledge, philosophical speculation, or some physical process. This system of thought differs from many other philosophical positions in that it begins with an assumption of the absolute reality of the essence of God, from which it deduces the essentially spiritual nature of the universe. Other assumptions frequently found in theosophical doctrine are that God is the transcendent source of all being and all good; that evil exists in the world because of human desire for finite goods and may be overcome by complete absorption in the infinite; and that sacred writings and doctrines are interpreted through allegory. This is the position of much speculative mysticism. However, mysticism generally confines itself to the soul's relation to God, while the theosophist uses these theories to formulate a complete philosophy of humanity and nature.


The Neoplatonists, the Gnostics, and the kabbalists are generally considered types of theosophists. Jakob Boehme, regarded as the father of modern theosophy, developed a complete theosophical system attempting to reconcile the existence of an all-powerful and all-good God with the presence of evil in the world. The philosophy and theology of Asia, especially of India, contain a vast body of theosophical doctrine. Modern theosophy draws much of its vocabulary from Indian sources. The Theosophical Society, with which theosophy is now generally identified, was founded in 1875 by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky; associated with her were H. S. Olcott and W. Q. Judge. Blavatsky wrote The Secret Doctrine (1888, repr. 1964) and Key to Theosophy (1931, rev. ed. 1969). An active exponent of theosophy in Europe, America, and the East was Annie Besant, who added many works to the literature on the subject.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, © Columbia University Press 2018

Related Articles

Full text Article Theosophy
Bloomsbury Guide to Human Thought

Theosophy (Greek, ‘wisdom about God’) was a pan-religious cult founded in 1875 by Helena Blavatsky 1831 1891 and...

Full text Article Theosophy
Encyclopedia of American Religious History

One of many new religious movements that originated in the 19th-century United States, Theosophy (literally, “wisdom of God”) began as a reform move

Full text Article Theosophical Society
Encyclopedia of World Religions: Encyclopedia of Hinduism

est. 1875 The Theosophical Society was founded in 1875 in New York City by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, Henry Steel Olcott, and William Q. Judge. The

See more from Credo