Capital of Baden-Württemberg, on the River Neckar, Germany; population (2003 est) 581,100, urban agglomeration 2,329,300. Industries include the manufacture of vehicles, electronics, mechanical and electrical engineering, precision instruments, foodstuffs, textiles, papermaking and publishing; it is a fruit-growing and beer- and wine-producing centre. There are two universities. Stuttgart was founded in the 10th century.
History Stuttgart owes its name to a stud farm which is mentioned as existing here in the 12th century, when the town was chartered. In 1320 it became a residence of the counts (later dukes and, from 1806, kings) of Württemberg, and in 1482 it was made their provincial capital; but its fortunes declined after the Thirty Years' War. Its modern importance dates from the raising of Württemberg to the status of a kingdom in 1806. Stuttgart expanded rapidly during the 19th and 20th centuries as its industrial plant grew. After World War I it became famous for the innovative architecture of its many modern buildings. The city was heavily bombed during World War II. After the war many old buildings were restored, and several striking modern structures were erected.
Location Stuttgart is situated in a natural basin, open only towards the Neckar, which flows through the suburb of Bad Cannstatt. The surrounding area has numerous orchards and vineyards.
Industries Stuttgart is one of the leading industrial cities of the country. Its manufactures include electrical goods (Bosch, Standard, AEG, IBM, Bauknecht), cars (Daimler-Benz, Porsche), metallurgical goods, optical instruments, clothing, and food industries. It is a publishing, banking and major exhibition centre, as well as a tourist centre. The area exports a large amount of wine and bottled mineral water.
Features It has three Gothic churches, one of which, the Stiftskirche, dates from the 12th–15th centuries. The old palace (1553–78, rebuilt 1948–69) houses the Württemberg State Museum, and the new palace (1746–1807, rebuilt 1959–62) is a government building. The Liederhalle, and the Rathaus with its 68 m/223 ft high tower are two notable modern buildings. The city has parks, gardens, art galleries, and theatres. There are two annual music festivals. It is the headquarters of the US European Command (Eucom). The philosopher Georg Wilhelm Hegel was born here, and the dramatist Johann Schiller was a medical student in the city.
Stuttgart City Guide