Polish science fiction writer, philosopher, and essayist. His works include the novels Astronauci/The Astronauts (1951) and Solaris (1961; filmed 1971), and the story cycle Cyberiade (1965). Lem's work, which is often satirical and examines moral questions about, for example, advancements in technology and the place of humanity in the universe, oscillates between optimistic humanism and fatalism regarding human shortcomings.
Fantastyka i futurologia/The Fantastic and Futurology (1970–72) is a study of science fiction as a genre and as a concept of the future. Other work includes Pokój na ziemi/Peace on Earth (1987) and a memoir, Highcastle: A Remembrance (1995).