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Definition: Paralympic Games from Philip's Encyclopedia

Sports meeting run every four years in parallel with the Olympic Games, and in which all competitors are physically handicapped. Much of the full Olympic programme of events is staged. Prosthetic limbs and other devices may be worn; many events are undertaken by competitors in wheelchairs.


Summary Article: Paralympic Games from Encyclopedia of International Games

The goal of the Paralympic Games, according to the International Paralympic Committee handbook, is “to provide the opportunity for persons with a disability to engage in a high level of competitive sport.”

The Paralympics have an involved history that intertwines numerous sports organizations and governing bodies. These organizations, since 1992, have been under the umbrella of the International Paralympic Committee (IPC). The games were originally for wheelchair athletes but have been expanded so that in the 2000 games in Sydney there were classifications for athletes with amputations, cerebral palsy, dwarfism, blindness, deafness and mental impairment. Due to the nature of the divisions, there were 700 medal events in the Paralympics of 1996—double the number of events in the Olympic Games.

Specifically at the 2000 Sydney Paralympic Games, the divisions were:

Classes 11, 12, 13—Blind Athletes (International Blind Sports Association, IBSA).

Class 20—Intellectually Disabled Athletes (International Sports Organization for the Disabled, INAS-FID).

Classes 33-38—different levels of Cerebral Palsy (Cerebral Palsy-International Sports and Recreation Association, CP-ISRA).

Classes 42-46—different levels of amputees and “other disabilities,” known as Les Autres (International Sports Organization for Disabled, ISOD).

Classes 51-58—those with spinal cord injuries and amputee athletes competing in wheelchairs (International Stoke Mandeville Wheelchair Sports Federation [ISMWSF]).

In 1960, the International Working Group on Sport for the Disabled was set up to help establish sporting events and rules for the blind, for amputees, and for athletes with cerebral palsy, who up to that time had no sports organizations. In 1964 this group became known as ISOD, the International Sport Organization for the Disabled.1

In 1982, an International Coordinating Committee (ICC) for World Sports Organizations for the Disabled was begun. This group had four international federations as members: International Sports Organization for the Disabled (ISOD), the International Stoke Mandeville Wheelchair Sports Federation (ISMWSF), the International Blind Sports Association (IBSA), and the Cerebral Palsy International Sports and Recreation Association (CP-ISRA). In 1992, the name of this umbrella organization was changed to the International Paralympic Committee (IPC).

The first games to become known as the Paralympic Games were held in Rome in 1960, though at the time they were not called the Paralympic Games. From 1964 to 1972, they were called the International Stoke Mandeville Games—Olympics of the Paralyzed, and the games were only open to athletes with spinal cord injuries.

The 1960 games were organized by the International Stoke Mandeville Games Federation that had been holding the Stoke Mandeville Wheelchair Games in England since 1948 under the guidance of Sir Ludwig Guttman. The first year that Guttman was successful in holding the games in the same city as the Olympic Games was 1960. Pope John XXIII made a special appearance and addressed the athletes.

The games of 1964 took place in Tokyo using the Olympic village and facilities in the same way the 1960 games used the Olympic facilities of Rome. Prince Akihito and Princess Michiko were present at the opening ceremony. Media coverage was good, with newspapers, radio and television all covering the events. The 1964 games were the first in which athletes actually raced in their wheelchairs.

Mexico City was not able to hold the 1968 games—altitude and problems of organization the two main considerations—so Israel volunteered to hold them. One athlete, Roberto Marson of Italy, won nine gold medals in three sports—swimming, fencing and athletics.

The 1972 and 1976 games were held in Heidelberg, West Germany, and Toronto, Canada, the nations if not the cities of the Olympic hosts of those years. The West German hosts wanted to stage the games in Munich after the Olympics but were not able to get permission to use the village and facilities in Munich. The games did branch out with the first events for quadriplegics and demonstration goalball for blind athletes.

The first instance of political disturbances in the games was in 1976, over the inclusion of a team from South Africa. Kenya and Yugoslavia decided ahead of time not to send teams to the games if South Africa was included. Cuba, Hungary, India and Jamaica arrived at the games and then withdrew. Poland pulled out in the middle of the games after winning a number of medals.

The inclusion of South Africa had financial implications for the games as well. When the Canadian federal government withdrew its support of $500,000 over the South African issue, the provincial government of Ontario was compelled to make up the difference.

Ironically, South Africa was one of the nations bidding for the games of 1980. Dr. Guttman defended South Africa in a press conference, saying that the South African Disabled Sport Association had rewritten its constitution to eliminate any references to segregation, and during his visit to South Africa he had personally witnessed mixed teams competing together.

One Hungarian athlete took the opportunity to defect during the 1976 games. He had the good fortune of hailing a taxi outside the village in the middle of the night, a taxi that happened to be driven by a former Hungarian citizen who was able to understand his every word.

A final controversy of the 1976 games was the revelation that some athletes were inclined to cheat during the physical evaluations which were used to place them in classifications to ensure fair competition. Canadian swimmer Barney Fegyverneki was quoted as saying, “classification is really not that hard to beat. All you have to do to bugger them up is to pretend you are having difficulty doing whatever they ask you to do and they will put you in a lower class.” Much was made of the comments, with many doctors admitting that the classification system had weaknesses and that it was not an easy task to classify disabled athletes. Bob Steadward, a Canadian official who was later to become president of the International Paralympic Committee, defended the classification system and the doctors’ abilities to correctly classify the athletes.

After Moscow refused to agree to hold the Paralympic Games of 1980, Arnhem, Netherlands, was chosen as host. The Dutch decided not to accept the entry of the South African delegation, hoping to avoid the protest and rancor of the 1976 games over this issue. Dr. Guttman died in March 1980, before the South Africa question could be resolved. The 1980 games were the first to include the participation of athletes with cerebral palsy.

The 1984 games were broken into two parts when Los Angeles refused to hold them. The blind, and those with cerebral palsy and with disabilities other than wheelchair athletes, competed in New York in June 1984 under the eye of IBSA, CP-ISRA and ISOD. U.S. President Ronald Reagan officially opened these games.

The wheelchair athletes from the International Stoke Mandeville Games Federation (ISMGF) who were originally scheduled to compete in Illinois, competed in the “VIIth World Wheelchair Games Paralympics” in Aylesbury, England, from July 22 to August 1.

The term “Paralympics,” though used occasionally, had still not come into consistent use by this time, Guttman himself preferring to use the term “Olympics of the Paralyzed,” and the press terming the games the “Wheelchair Olympics” or “Olympics of the Disabled.” The IOC had never fully approved the use of the term “Olympic” but had not strongly disapproved it either. When the word “Paralympic” was proposed in 1984, the IOC had no difficulties accepting this term. In February 1985, the ICC and IOC came to more formal terms over the issue. The IOC would provide support and financial aid for the disabled athletes, while the disabled sport movement would forgo the use of the word “Olympic” and use “Paralympic” in its place.

The games in Seoul in 1988 were organized by SPOC, the Seoul Paralympic Organizing Committee, which worked in conjunction with the Seoul Olympic Organizing Committee. With 61 nations and 3,053 athletes, the games were a huge leap in size over previous games.

In 1992, the Barcelona Olympic Organizing Committee set up a division of its organization specifically to organize the Paralympics. After the Barcelona Games the name International Coordinating Committee (ICC) was changed to IPC, the International Paralympic Committee.

Drug testing became an accepted reality of the games. Five athletes were caught and suspended, three for steroid violations. In the first real scandal involving doping at the games, the United States lost the wheelchair basketball gold medal when one player tested positive for banned pain-killing drugs. The result was protested, and for a short time the ruling was reversed, but eventually the case was heard before the Court of Arbitration for Sport and the U.S. team was disqualified. The rules in team sports were then changed and now read that only a guilty player is disqualified, not the entire team and results stand.

At the Atlanta Games in 1996, actor Christopher Reeve, paralyzed after an earlier show-jumping accident, was the master of ceremonies at the opening ceremony. U.S. Vice-President Al Gore opened the games and Aretha Franklin, Liza Minelli and Carly Simon provided the musical entertainment. The 1996 Paralympics were the first to include athletes with mental disabilities.

The 1500 meter wheelchair event saw a world record by Australia's Louise Sauvage when she beat out Chantal Petitclerc of Canada and Jean Driscoll of the United States. Sauvage's world record time was 3:30.45. The first six places were under the old world record of 3:36.66. Sauvage also set a world record in the 5,000 meter race in a time of 12:40.71 and also won the 400 and 800 meter races in her division. Petitclerc won the gold in the 100 meters, and silver medals in the 200, 400, 800 and 1500 meters. Finally, Jean Driscoll, third in the 1500, was second in the 5000 and won both the 10,000 (in a world record of 24:21.64) and marathon events. In total, 268 world records were broken in all sports at the Atlanta Paralympics.

The Sydney 2000 Paralympic Games were highly acclaimed and highly successful with 3900 competitors from 122 countries, plus two independent athletes from East Timor. When the East Timorese athletes arrived in Australia, customs agents noticed that they had very little equipment or even clothing with them. They roused the Australian citizens who donated clothing and uniforms.

1.2 million tickets were sold for the games—more than double the number for Atlanta. The athletes competed for 550 gold medals in 18 sports. The Australian people supported the games strongly, purchasing the vast majority of the tickets.

The Paralympic torch was brought into the stadium by Australian Paralympian Katrina Webb, and relayed around the track to Louise Sauvage who lit a special cauldron on the stadium floor which then lit the Paralympic flame above the stadium.

The games were not without several controversies. After physical examinations, athletes of several nationalities were reclassified, causing the British to complain that they would lose several gold medals as a result. Britain's director of swimming performance said, “You've worked to get a world record, but you still get beaten by someone you didn't even know was going to be there.”

Classifications are reviewed every two years and changed in many cases, especially for athletes with degenerative conditions. Athletes may even at times be reclassified after participating in qualifying heats if they show more functionality during the race than they showed during testing.

Bob Matthews of Britain made up for some of the disappointment when he won the 10,000 meter blind race. Matthews had won the 5,000 meter gold in Barcelona and finished second in the Atlanta 5,000 meters, but had been disqualified in that race after his guide runner crossed the line ahead of him.

Another eligibility issue arose when the discus event in the Cerebral Palsy category (F34) was canceled. Shot putter Hamish MacDonald, the Atlanta gold medalist, hoped to switch divisions and compete in the F56 wheelchair division. The Court of Arbitration for Sport ordered a medical evaluation but the medical panel ruled that he did not qualify for the new division.

Some 700 drug tests were carried out at the games, with the result being the highest-profile drug case at a Paralympic games. Brian Frasure of the United States, at the time the 100 meter world record-holder in his division, tested positive for nandrolone after winning two silver medals. He was allowed to keep his medal for the 100 meters but was stripped of the 200 meters medal and given a four-year suspension which was appealed. Ten athletes in total failed drug tests at the games. The other nine were from the sport of powerlifting.

After the games, another troubling development came to light when it was revealed by one of the team members that Spain's intellectually disabled Paralympic basketball team comprised some players who were not intellectually disabled. Some 10 of its 12 members, allegedly, were not handicapped. The incident had immediate and perhaps far-reaching ramifications. The Spanish team returned the gold medals, and the vice president of Spain's Paralympic Committee and president of the Sports Federation for the Intellectually Handicapped, Fernando Martin Vicente, resigned.

Just after the Paralympics, basketball player Carlos Ribagorda wrote in Spain's Capital magazine that he and other medal winners were not mentally disabled. Ribagorda claimed that up to 15 members of Spain's Paralympic team in track and field, table tennis and swimming were not handicapped.

Several weeks later the International Paralympic Committee moved to suspend all intellectually disabled athletes from the Paralympic Games. The International Paralympic Committee concluded that there are “serious problems regarding the determination of eligibility of athletes” in the intellectually disabled class. The IPC also suspended the International Sports Federation for Athletes with an Intellectual Disability.

The beneficiaries of Spain's disqualification were the Russian basketball team. The Russians had been awarded the silver medal and $2000 each from their federation. When the silver medals were upgraded to gold, the Russian federation gave each $3000 more to equal the promised $5000 to each gold-medal winner.

International Paralympic Committee president Dr. Robert Steadward was very pleased with the outcome of the games. He called them “near perfect,” and was pleased that Sydney Olympic and Paralympic organizers had worked side by side.

Before the Sydney Games, Athens had not formally signed a contract with the IPC to host the 2004 Paralympic Games. This was taken care of at Sydney, however.

During the games, the IOC and IPC signed another agreement which stated that “the IOC will formalize its relationship with the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) through a contract or memorandum of understanding. Clear rules concerning the link between the Olympic Games and the Paralympic Games must be set.”

The agreement went on to say that “the Paralympics must be organized in the same city as the Olympic Games.” The obligation for the host city to organize the Paralympic Games, it added, must be included in the host city contract and the Paralympics must always follow the Olympic Games. The IPC would also be represented on IOC commissions covering such issues as the evaluation of candidate cities for the Olympic Games, coordination for the Olympic Games, culture and Olympic education and athletes, and on the working group addressing women and sport. The IOC would also continue to give financial support to the Paralympic movement, the agreement concluded.

Year

Host City

Host Nation

Dates

Nations

Athletes193

Sports

193Participation figures from “Paralympics, Where Heroes Come,” Steadward and Peterson, and IPC website, www.paralympic.org. Both sources agree.

1960

Rome

Italy

September 17-22

23

400

8

1964

Tokyo

Japan

November 6-14

22

390

9

1968

Tel Aviv

Israel

November 5-13

28

750

10

1972

Heidelberg

West Germany

August 2-10

44

1000

10

1976

Toronto

Canada

August 3-11

42

1600

13

1980

Arnhem

Netherlands

June 21-July 5

42

2500

12

1984

New York

USA

June 16-30

45

1750

15

1984

Aylesbury

England

July 22-Aug.1

41

1100

10

1988

Seoul

South Korea

October 15-25

61

3053

17

1992

Barcelona

Spain

September 3-14

82

3020

15

1996

Atlanta

USA

August 15-25

120

3195

17

2000

Sydney

Australia

October 14-24

122

3900

18

1960 Rome Italy September 17-22

Sports: Archery, Athletics, Basketball, Dartchery, Fencing, Snooker, Swimming, Table Tennis

Sports for Women: Archery, Athletics, Dartchery, Fencing, Swimming, Table Tennis

Medals

Nation

Gold

Silver

Bronze

Total

Italy

29

26

18.5

73.5

Great Britain

21

15

18

54

West Germany

14

7

8

29

Austria

11

8

9

28

United States

10

7

7

24

Norway

7

5

4

16

France

4

1

3

8

Australia

3

6

2

11

Netherlands

2

6

0

8

Malta

2

4

1.5

7.5

Argentina

2

3

2

7

Rhodesia

2

1

2

5

Ireland

2

0

0

2

Switzerland

1

3

0

4

Belgium

1

1

0

2

Finland

1

0

0

1

Israel

0

2

2

4

1964 Tokyo Japan November 6-14

Sports: Archery, Athletics, Basketball, Dartchery, Fencing, Powerlifting, Snooker, Swimming, Table Tennis

Sports for Women: Archery, Athletics, Dartchery, Fencing, Swimming, Table Tennis

Medals

Nation

Gold

Silver

Bronze

Total

United States

50

41

31

122

Great Britain

18

23

19

60

Italy

14

15

24

53

Australia

11

11

8

30

Rhodesia

10

5

2

17

South Africa

8

8

3

19

Israel

7

3

10

20

Argentina

6

15

16

37

West Germany

5

2

3

10

Netherlands

4

6

3

13

France

4

2

4

10

Austria

4

1

4

9

Japan

1

5

3

9

Belgium

1

0

2

3

Switzerland

0

1

0

1

Malta

0

0

2

2

Sweden

0

0

1

1

1968 Tel Aviv Israel November 5-13

Nations: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Great Britain, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Rhodesia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States (21 of 28 participating nations)

Sports: Archery, Athletics, Basketball, Dartchery, Fencing, Lawn Bowls, Power-lifting, Snooker, Swimming, Table Tennis

Sports for Women: Archery, Athletics, Basketball, Dartchery, Fencing, Lawn Bowls, Swimming, Table Tennis

Medals

Nation

Gold

Silver

Bronze

Total

United States

30

24

33

87

Great Britain

27

16

17

60

Israel

15

20

17

52

Australia

15

14

7

36

Germany

13

11

13

37

France

12

7

7

26

Netherlands

12

4

6

22

Italy

11

11

13

35

South Africa

8

8

9

25

Argentina

6

6

6

18

Rhodesia

4

9

6

19

Norway

4

3

1

8

Jamaica

3

1

1

5

Austria

2

7

9

18

Japan

2

2

8

12

Sweden

1

5

4

10

New Zealand

1

2

1

4

Ireland

0

3

6

9

Belgium

0

3

2

5

Spain

0

3

1

4

Switzerland

0

2

5

7

1972 Heidelberg West Germany August 2-10

Sports: Archery, Athletics, Basketball, Dartchery, Fencing, Lawn Bowls, Power-lifting, Snooker, Swimming, Table Tennis

Sports for Women: Archery, Athletics, Basketball, Dartchery, Fencing, Lawn Bowls, Powerlifting, Swimming, Table Tennis

Medals

Nation

Gold

Silver

Bronze

Total

West Germany

28

15

24

67

United States

17

28

28

73

South Africa

16

12

13

41

Great Britain

15

15

20

50

Netherlands

14

13

11

38

Poland

14

12

7

33

France

10

8

12

30

Israel

9

10

9

28

Italy

8

3

5

16

Jamaica

8

3

4

15

Australia

6

9

10

25

Canada

6

6

8

20

Austria

6

6

5

17

Sweden

5

5

5

15

Japan

4

5

3

12

Rhodesia

3

5

4

12

New Zealand

3

3

3

9

Switzerland

3

2

3

8

Korea

3

2

1

6

Argentina

2

5

3

10

Ireland

2

4

2

8

Kenya

2

0

0

2

Norway

1

5

5

11

Belgium

1

2

2

5

Yugoslavia

1

1

2

4

India

1

0

0

1

Spain

0

4

1

5

Finland

0

2

2

4

Hong Kong

0

1

1

2

Soviet Union

0

0

1

1

Hungary

0

0

1

1

1976 Toronto Canada August 3-11

Nations: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Burma, Canada, Denmark, Egypt, Fiji, Finland, France, Great Britain, Guatemala, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Peru, Poland, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States, West Germany (nine more)

Sports: Archery, Athletics, Basketball, Dartchery, Fencing, Goalball, Lawn Bowls, Powerlifting, Shooting, Snooker, Swimming, Table Tennis, Volleyball

Sports for Women: Archery, Athletics, Basketball, Dartchery, Fencing, Lawn Bowls, Swimming, Table Tennis

Medals

Nation

Gold

Silver

Bronze

Total

United States

66

44

45

155

Netherlands

45

25

14

84

Israel

39

13

16

68

West Germany

37

33

26

96

Great Britain

29

29

36

94

Canada

25

26

26

77

Poland

24

17

12

53

France

23

22

14

59

Sweden

22

27

25

74

Austria

18

16

17

51

Australia

16

18

10

44

Mexico

16

14

9

39

Finland

12

20

18

50

Japan

10

6

3

19

Switzerland

9

12

10

31

Norway

9

6

4

19

South Africa

7

9

12

28

Belgium

7

7

8

22

New Zealand

7

1

5

13

Egypt

5

2

1

8

Ireland

4

10

6

20

Spain

4

6

2

12

Argentina

3

4

6

13

Denmark

3

0

3

6

Italy

2

5

11

18

Indonesia

2

1

4

7

South Korea

1

2

1

4

Burma

1

1

1

3

Peru

1

0

2

3

Hong Kong

0

1

2

3

Brazil

0

1

0

1

Guatemala

0

0

1

1

1980 Arnhem Netherlands June 21-July 5

Nations: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bahamas, Belgium, Canada, Colombia, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Great Britain, Hong Kong, Iceland, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kenya, Korea, Kuwait, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, United States, West Germany, Yugoslavia, Zimbabwe (3 more)

Sports: Archery, Athletics, Basketball, Fencing, Goalball, Lawn Bowls, Powerlifting, Shooting, Swimming, Table Tennis, Volleyball, Wrestling

Sports for Women: Archery, Athletics, Basketball, Fencing, Lawn Bowls, Shooting, Swimming, Table Tennis

Medals

Nation

Gold

Silver

Bronze

Total

United States

62

58

54

174

West Germany

61

47

41

149

Canada

53

27

31

111

Poland

51

51

47

149

Great Britain

43

29

20

92

Netherlands

32

27

33

92

Sweden

25

35

24

84

France

25

23

24

72

Mexico

20

16

4

40

Israel

12

18

11

41

Norway

11

11

7

29

Belgium

11

9

13

33

Austria

9

12

4

25

Switzerland

9

10

9

28

Australia

8

19

18

45

Japan

8

10

6

24

Finland

6

15

12

33

Italy

6

4

9

19

New Zealand

5

6

5

16

Jamaica

5

6

4

15

Egypt

4

7

3

14

Argentina

4

4

6

14

Yugoslavia

3

5

9

17

Denmark

3

4

6

13

Ireland

2

2

10

14

Kuwait

2

2

1

5

Iceland

2

0

1

3

Spain

1

14

9

24

Korea

1

2

1

4

Kenya

1

2

0

3

Indonesia

1

0

4

5

Colombia

1

0

1

2

Sudan

1

0

0

1

Zimbabwe

0

7

4

11

Bahamas

0

1

2

3

Hong Kong

0

0

2

2

Czechoslovakia

0

0

1

1

Malta

0

0

1

1

Luxembourg

0

0

1

1

1984 New York USA June 16-30

Sports: Archery, Athletics, Basketball, Boccia, Cycling, Dressage, Football, Goalball, Lawn Bowls, Powerlifting, Shooting, Swimming, Table Tennis, Volleyball, Wrestling

Medals

Nation

Gold

Silver

Bronze

Total

United States

101

91

84

276

Great Britain

75

80

85

240

Sweden

51

30

22

103

Canada

48

52

49

149

West Germany

44

42

29

115

Netherlands

44

40

17

101

France

37

39

23

99

Australia

29

38

26

93

Norway

22

24

20

66

Denmark

22

6

11

39

Spain

21

8

12

41

Poland

20

15

13

48

Finland

15

10

17

42

Ireland

13

11

20

44

Hungary

12

12

3

27

Belgium

9

11

6

26

Yugoslavia

7

9

8

24

Austria

5

13

7

25

Switzerland

5

2

2

9

Portugal

4

2

7

13

Italy

3

7

6

16

Japan

3

2

5

10

China

2

12

8

22

Israel

2

6

7

15

New Zealand

2

3

1

6

Egypt

2

0

3

5

Trinidad and Tobago

2

0

1

3

Luxembourg

1

4

1

6

Brazil

1

3

2

6

Burkina Faso

1

1

2

4

Mexico

0

3

3

6

Iceland

0

2

6

8

East Germany

0

2

1

3

India

0

2

1

3

Indonesia

0

1

1

2

Zimbabwe

0

1

0

1

Korea

0

0

1

1

Hong Kong

0

0

1

1

1984 Aylesbury England July 22-Aug. 1

Sports: Archery, Athletics, Basketball, Fencing, Lawn Bowls, Shooting, Snooker, Swimming, Table Tennis, Powerlifting

Medals

Nation

Gold

Silver

Bronze

Total

West Germany

37

32

41

110

Canada

35

22

16

73

France

34

30

23

87

United States

30

34

48

112

Sweden

30

13

8

51

Great Britain

27

28

27

82

Poland

24

18

8

50

Australia

18

16

22

56

Switzerland

13

12

10

35

Belgium

13

10

8

31

Israel

9

15

5

29

Netherlands

8

10

9

27

Austria

7

7

3

17

Brazil

6

14

2

22

Mexico

6

12

13

31

Denmark

6

6

15

27

New Zealand

6

6

5

17

Japan

6

5

14

25

Ireland

6

4

18

28

Italy

5

12

26

43

Norway

5

6

16

27

Hong Kong

3

5

16

24

Yugoslavia

2

1

5

8

Finland

1

3

12

16

Kuwait

1

2

7

10

Kenya

1

1

3

5

Korea

0

2

3

5

Bahamas

0

2

2

4

Jordan

0

1

3

4

Bahrain

0

0

2

2

Egypt

0

0

2

2

Iceland

0

0

2

2

Zimbabwe

0

0

2

2

1988 Seoul South Korea October 15-25

Sports: Archery, Athletics, Basketball, Boccia, Cycling, Fencing, Football, Goal Ball, Judo, Lawn Bowls, Powerlifting, Shooting, Snooker, Swimming, Table Tennis, Tennis, Weightlifting

Sports for Women: Archery, Athletics, Basketball, Boccia, Fencing, Goal Ball, Lawn Bowls, Powerlifting, Shooting, Swimming, Table Tennis, Tennis

Medals

Nation

Gold

Silver

Bronze

Total

United States

92

61

85

238

Germany

77

64

48

189

Great Britain

62

66

51

179

Canada

54

42

57

153

France

45

48

49

142

Sweden

42

38

22

102

Korea

40

35

19

94

Netherlands

30

23

29

82

Denmark

25

18

22

65

Australia

23

34

37

94

Poland

22

25

34

81

Russia

21

19

15

55

Spain

18

13

12

43

China

17

17

9

43

Italy

16

15

27

58

Japan

16

12

17

45

Belgium

15

17

9

41

Israel

15

13

15

43

Ireland

13

13

18

44

Austria

13

7

15

35

Switzerland

12

12

10

34

Finland

11

23

15

49

Norway

11

11

13

35

Mexico

8

9

6

23

Brazil

4

9

14

27

Kuwait

4

6

8

18

Yugoslavia

4

4

11

19

Iran

4

1

3

8

Portugal

3

4

5

12

New Zealand

2

4

11

17

Iceland

2

2

8

12

Bulgaria

2

1

0

3

Jamaica

1

4

3

8

Faroe Islands

1

3

3

7

Egypt

1

2

3

6

Puerto Rico

1

2

0

3

Bahrain

1

1

1

3

Guatemala

1

0

0

1

Argentina

0

7

2

9

Hungary

0

4

7

11

Kenya

0

4

1

5

Hong Kong

0

2

7

9

Greece

0

1

3

4

Thailand

0

1

0

1

Czechoslovakia

0

1

0

1

Indonesia

0

1

0

1

Tunisia

0

0

2

2

1992 Barcelona Spain September 3-14

Sports: Archery, Athletics, Basketball, Boccia, Cycling, Fencing, Football, Goal Ball, Judo, Powerlifting, Shooting, Swimming, Table Tennis, Tennis, Volleyball

Sports for Women: Archery, Athletics, Basketball, Boccia, Cycling, Fencing, Goal Ball, Shooting, Swimming, Table Tennis, Tennis

Medals

Nation

Gold

Silver

Bronze

Total

United States

76

51

48

175

Germany

60

50

60

170

Great Britain

40

46

41

127

France

36

35

33

104

Spain

34

31

42

107

Canada

28

21

26

75

Australia

24

27

25

76

Unified Team

17

14

15

46

Netherlands

13

15

11

39

Norway

13

12

7

32

Denmark

12

22

12

46

China

11

7

7

25

Korea

10

14

18

42

Italy

10

7

18

35

Finland

8

6

11

25

Sweden

7

22

9

38

Poland

7

10

7

24

Japan

7

8

15

30

Switzerland

6

16

12

34

Austria

5

4

13

22

Belgium

5

4

6

15

Egypt

5

4

4

13

New Zealand

5

1

0

6

Czechoslovakia

4

3

6

13

Hungary

4

3

4

11

Yugoslavia

4

3

1

8

South Africa

4

1

3

8

Hong Kong

3

4

4

11

Cuba

3

3

3

9

Portugal

3

3

1

7

Iceland

3

2

12

17

Brazil

3

0

4

7

Israel

2

4

5

11

Slovenia

2

0

1

3

Nigeria

2

0

0

2

Kuwait

1

3

1

5

Iran

1

2

1

4

Panama

1

2

0

3

Bulgaria

1

2

0

3

Argentina

1

1

0

2

Kenya

1

0

1

2

Lithuania

0

4

3

7

Ireland

0

3

3

6

Estonia

0

2

1

3

Greece

0

2

1

3

Mexico

0

1

10

11

Malaysia

0

1

2

3

Jamaica

0

1

2

3

Faroe Islands

0

1

0

1

Venezuela

0

0

1

1

Croatia

0

0

1

1

Chinese Taipei

0

0

1

1

Iraq

0

0

1

1

Bahrain

0

0

1

1

Thailand

0

0

1

1

1996 Atlanta USA August 15-25

Sports: Archery, Athletics, Basketball, Boccia, Cycling, Fencing, Football, Goal Ball, Judo, Powerlifting, Shooting, Swimming, Table Tennis, Tennis, Volleyball, Wheelchair Rugby, Yachting

Sports for Women: Archery, Athletics, Basketball, Boccia, Cycling, Fencing, Goal Ball, Shooting, Swimming, Table Tennis, Tennis

Nations: Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Chinese Taipei, Cuba, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Kuwait, Lithuania, Mexico, Moldova, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Panama, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Tunisia, Ukraine, United States, Uruguay, Yugoslavia (60 more)

Medals

Nation

Gold

Silver

Bronze

Total

United States

46

46

65

157

Australia

42

37

27

106

Germany

40

58

51

149

Great Britain

39

42

41

122

Spain

39

31

36

106

France

35

29

31

95

Canada

24

21

24

69

Netherlands

17

11

17

45

China

16

13

10

39

Japan

14

10

12

36

Poland

13

14

8

35

South Korea

13

2

15

30

Sweden

12

14

10

36

Italy

11

20

15

46

South Africa

10

8

10

28

Russia

9

7

11

27

Norway

9

7

4

20

Switzerland

9

6

6

21

New Zealand

9

6

3

18

Iran

9

5

3

17

Egypt

8

11

11

30

Belgium

8

10

7

25

Cuba

8

3

0

11

Denmark

7

17

17

41

Austria

6

6

10

22

Portugal

6

4

4

14

Hong Kong

5

5

5

15

Iceland

5

4

5

14

Hungary

5

2

3

10

Finland

4

5

4

13

Mexico

3

5

4

12

Estonia

3

4

2

9

Belarus

3

3

7

13

Lithuania

3

2

6

11

Nigeria

3

2

3

8

Czech Republic

2

7

1

10

Brazil

2

6

13

21

Argentina

2

5

2

9

Slovakia

2

4

5

11

Algeria

2

2

3

7

Yugoslavia

2

2

0

4

Ivory Coast

2

0

0

2

Panama

2

0

0

2

Ukraine

1

4

2

7

Ireland

1

3

6

10

Greece

1

1

3

5

Kuwait

1

1

1

3

Kenya

1

1

0

2

Chinese Taipei

1

0

2

3

Dominican Republic

1

0

0

1

Peru

1

0

0

1

Israel

0

4

5

9

Slovenia

0

2

3

5

Tunisia

0

2

0

2

Bulgaria

0

1

1

2

Jordan

0

1

0

1

Moldova

0

0

2

2

Thailand

0

0

2

2

Jamaica

0

0

1

1

Uruguay

0

0

1

1

2000 Sydney Australia October 14-24

Nations: Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Bermuda, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, China, Chinese Taipei, Columbia, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, East Timor, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Fiji, Finland, FYR of Macedonia, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea Republic, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Ireland, Islamic Republic of Iran, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jamaica, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Libya, Lithuania, Macau, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritania, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Qatar, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Syrian Arab Republic, Thailand, Tonga, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United States, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe2

Sports: Archery, Athletics, Basketball, Boccia, Cycling, Equestrian, Fencing, Football, Goalball, Judo, Powerlifting, Sailing, Shooting, Swimming, Table Tennis, Tennis, Volleyball (sitting and standing), Wheelchair Rugby

Sports for Women: Archery, Athletics, Basketball, Boccia, Cycling, Equestrian, Fencing, Goalball, Powerlifting, Shooting, Swimming, Table Tennis, Tennis, Wheelchair Rugby

Medals

Nation

Gold

Silver

Bronze

Total

Australia

63

39

47

149

Great Britain

41

43

47

131

Spain

39

30

38

107

Canada

38

33

25

96

United States

36

39

34

109

China

34

22

16

72

France

30

28

28

86

Poland

19

22

12

53

Korea

18

7

7

32

Germany

15

42

38

95

Czech Republic

15

15

13

43

Japan

13

17

11

41

South Africa

13

12

13

38

Russia

12

11

12

35

Netherlands

12

9

9

30

Iran

12

4

7

23

Mexico

10

12

12

34

Italy

9

8

10

27

Denmark

8

8

14

30

Switzerland

8

4

8

20

Hong Kong

8

3

7

18

Nigeria

7

1

5

13

Egypt

6

11

11

28

Brazil

6

10

6

22

New Zealand

6

8

3

17

Portugal

6

5

4

15

Tunisia

6

4

1

11

Belarus

5

8

10

23

Sweden

5

6

10

21

Thailand

5

4

2

11

Ireland

5

3

1

9

Hungary

4

5

14

23

Greece

4

4

3

11

Cuba

4

2

2

8

Ukraine

3

20

14

37

Slovakia

3

5

5

13

Israel

3

2

1

6

Algeria

3

0

0

3

Austria

2

7

6

15

Norway

2

6

7

15

Iceland

2

0

2

4

Belgium

1

4

4

9

Finland

1

3

6

10

Chinese Taipei

1

2

4

7

Estonia

1

1

3

5

Kenya

1

1

2

4

Azerbaijan

1

1

0

2

Peru

1

1

0

2

Ivory Coast

1

0

1

2

Zimbabwe

1

0

0

1

Jordan

1

0

0

1

Bulgaria

1

0

0

1

United Arab Emi.

0

3

1

4

Faroe Islands

0

3

1

4

Argentina

0

2

3

5

Slovenia

0

2

2

4

Lithuania

0

2

1

3

Kuwait

0

1

4

5

Bahrain

0

1

1

2

Panama

0

1

1

2

Yugoslavia

0

1

0

1

Bosnia/Herz.

0

1

0

1

Latvia

0

0

3

3

Venezuela

0

0

1

1

Libya

0

0

1

1

Philippines

0

0

1

1

Palestine

0

0

1

1

Puerto Rico

0

0

1

1

1

Joan Scruton, “Paralympism, Olympism, sport for handicapped people.” Unpublished manuscript.

2

This list contains the 128 nations who entered in the games. Official figures stated that only 122 nations eventually participated, but this list does not account for the six-nation discrepancy.

© 2012 McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers

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