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Definition: Mut from The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia with Atlas and Weather Guide

In Egyptian mythology, the mother goddess of Thebes. She is depicted wearing a headdress in the shape of a vulture, and is the wife of Ammon.


Summary Article: Mut
from The Encyclopedia of Ancient History

Mut was the goddess known as the consort of the god Amun and mother of the god Khons in the Theban triad, revered particularly at Karnak (see Amun-Re; Khons (Khonsu))). There are no secure attestations of her prior to the Middle Kingdom (see Middle Kingdom, Egypt). Mut had her own temple south of the main Karnak temple in an area known as Isheru in antiquity, currently being excavated by a team from Johns Hopkins University and another from the Brooklyn Museum. She is usually shown as a woman wearing a vulture headdress surmounted by the White Crown or Double Crown (see Crowns, Egyptian) and holding a scepter in the shape of a papyrus. One of her totemic animals was a vulture. Her main role was that of divine mother of the reigning monarch, a role she shared with Isis (see Isis, Pharaonic Egypt) and Hathor. Like those goddesses, Mut is sometimes shown as a seated woman suckling a child and can only be identified by inscriptions rather than iconography. The title of the God's Wife of Amun was associated with Mut, and the royal women holding that title were shown with iconography that linked them to Mut. Frequently, queens were shown wearing Mut's vulture headdress. Mut's fierce and protective nature linked her with the goddess Sekhmet, and thus she was sometimes depicted with a leonine head. In some texts, Mut was identified as a daughter or eye of the sun god RE.

References and Suggested Readings
  • De Meulenaere, H. (1982) Isis et Mout du mammisi. In Quaegebeur, J. , ed., Studia Paulo Naster oblata, vol. 2, Orientalia antiqua: 25-30. Leuven.
  • Te Velde, H. (1979-80) "Towards a minimal definition of the goddess Mut." Jaarbericht van het Vooraziatisch-Egyptisch Genootschap"Ex Oriente Lux" 8, 26: 3-9.
  • Te Velde, H. (1989) Mut, the eye of Re. In Schoske, S. , ed., Akten des vierten internationalen Ägyptologen-kongresses, München 1985, vol. 3: 395-403. Hamburg.
  • Salima Ikram
    Wiley ©2012

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