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Definition: mural 2 from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate(R) Dictionary

(1916) : a mural work of art (as a painting)

mu•ral•ist \-ə-list\ n


Summary Article: Murals from Encyclopedia of American Studies

While murals (that is, wall paintings, from the Latin murus, meaning “wall”) date from prehistoric times and have a long tradition as decorative art and political rhetoric, they emerged as a major art form in the United States during the 1930s as an expression of the community solidarity and validation of American life that marked the Depression-era and New Deal arts programs. Between 1930 and 1943 professional and amateur artists across the land created thousands of murals in post offices and other public spaces, most sponsored by various arts programs of Franklin D. Roosevelt's administration.

Taking their inspiration from the great Mexican muralists Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco, and David Alfaro Siqueiros, artists such as Thomas Hart Benton, Mitchell Siporin, Victor Arnautoff, and Ethel Magafan depicted Americans on the farm and in the factory, in small towns and cities, at work and at play. The “mural project” of the 1930s was part of a larger impetus compelling Americans to explore and document their heritage. Unlike their Mexican contemporaries, American muralists of the 1930s and early 1940s were seldom overtly political in theme, focusing instead on local history and the American worker.

The movement was in part a reaction against the modernist work that dominated the elite cultural community of the 1920s. Thomas Hart Benton's 1930 America Today murals in the New School for Social Research in New York City depicted Midwestern and East Coast scenes of agricultural and industrial enterprise. Benton's work glorifies the ordinary American and the American project of expansion; his masterpiece, The Social History of the State of Missouri, in the state capitol at Jefferson City, combines the history of the state with such folk legends as Jesse James and Huckleberry Finn.

In 1933 the Roosevelt administration inaugurated the Public Works of Art Project (PWAP), the first of several New Deal programs that supported murals. One of the program's earliest triumphs was the series of murals painted in San Francisco's Coit Tower. Anchored by vignettes such as Victor Arnautoff's City Life, which creates a lively street scene replete with a pickpocket and a newsstand carrying the communist Daily Worker, the work captivated San Franciscans of the period and remains popular today.

Some of the murals, such as Mitchell Siporin's The Fusion of Agriculture and Industry in Decatur, Illinois, celebrated generic ideals of American life. Many others in post offices across the country drew on local history and life for themes. Thus, Xavier Gonzalez's Drilling for Oil was appropriate for Kilgore, Texas, and Gerald Foster's Revolutionary Engagement at Bridge in Milburn, 1780 reminded residents of their heritage in creating the nation.

With the collapse of the federal arts programs in the 1940s, the country turned its attention to postwar rebuilding and consumerism. During the 1950s the art establishment was dominated by abstract expressionism, and, without large-scale support, few murals were created in that decade.

The mural movement in the United States was reborn in the 1960s as an expression of ethnic pride and as part of the broader challenge to inequality and the values of bourgeois culture. This renaissance is usually dated from 1967, when Bill Walker, an African American artist, organized neighbors to create a collage on the wall of a semi-abandoned building on the south side of Chicago. The Wall of Respect, as it was known, consisted of vignettes of black life and heroes, amplified by print materials and photographs.

The idea caught on, and artists in Chicago, Detroit, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, and New York City launched a new mural cycle that took art out of the gallery or museum and into the street. In contrast to murals of the 1930s, which stressed homogeneity in American life and values, the new murals often depicted cultural diversity and conflict.

The contemporary mural movement has broadened to incorporate other goals and other aesthetic traditions. Murals funded through jobs programs, as well as through the National Endowment for the Arts, have served the needs of city planners to promote urban beautification and renewal, provide summer jobs for youth, and discourage graffiti. Many murals today are sponsored by corporations or local businesses, and some border on advertisement. Socially conscious and representational murals have been joined by decorative art, postmodern designs, and even graffiti motifs.

Detroit Industry or Man and Machine. 1932-33. Diego Rivera, artist. South Wall, Detroit Institute of Arts, The Virtual Diego Rivera Web Museum.

Murals for the community. Poster announcing Federal Art Project exhibition. c.1936-1938. Works Projects Administration, Poster Collection, Library of Congress.

Masterpieces of Art Courtyard, Feininger's murals, New York World's Fair, New York, NY. 1939-1940. Feininger, muralist. Images of America: Lantern Slide Collection, Harvard University Graduate School of Design.

Graffiti murals painted on walls near School Number 15, Paterson, New Jersey, as part of city-approved demonstration by graffiti artists. 1994. Martha Cooper, photographer. Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress.

Graffiti murals painted on walls near School Number 15, Paterson, New Jersey, as part of city-approved demonstration by graffiti artists. 1994. Martha Cooper, photographer. Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress.

Felix Osiemi, artist. Ferguson School. Philadelphia. 2006. Philadelphia Mural Base, University of Pennsylvania.

Metamorphosis: Blueprint to End Homelessness. Josh Sarantitis, artist; Eric Okdeh, assistant. Sponsored by City of Philadelphia and SmithKline Beecham. Philadelphia Murals Base, University of Pennsylvania.

Diego Rivera, Modern Industry, fresco. 1933. New York, New Workers School. The Virtual Diego Rivera Web Museum.

Bibliography
  • Becker, Heather, Art for the People: The Rediscovery and Preservation of Progressive and WPA-Era Murals in the Chicago Public Schools, 1904-1943 (Chronicle 2002).
  • Cockcroft, Eva; John, Weber; Jim, Cockcroft, Toward a People's Art: The Contemporary Mural Movement (Dutton 1977).
  • Eubanks, Charlotte, The Mirror of Memory: Constructions of Hell in the Marukis' Nuclear Murals, PMLA 124, no. 5 (2009):1614-1631, 1946-1947.
  • Golden, Jane, et al., More Philadelphia Murals and the Stories They Tell (Temple Univ. Press 2006).
  • Golden, Jane, et al., Philadelphia Murals and the Stories They Tell (Temple Univ. Press 2002).
  • Gray, Mary Lackritz, A Guide to Chicago's Murals (Univ. of Chicago Press 2001).
  • Lee, Anthony W., Painting on the Left: Diego Rivera, Radical Politics, and San Francisco's Public Murals (Univ. of Calif. Press 1999).
  • Legrás, Horacio, Walter Benjamin and the Mexican Revolution: A Meditation on the “Theses on the Philosophy of History” and Diego Rivera's Murals, Discourse: Journal for Theoretical Studies in Media and Culture 32, no. 1 (2010):66-86.
  • Marling, Karal Ann, Wall-to-Wall America: A Cultural History of Post Office Murals in the Great Depression (Univ. of Minn. Press 1982).
  • McKinzie, Richard D., The New Deal for Artists (Princeton Univ. Press 1973).
  • O'Connor, Francis V., The 1930s: Notes on the Transition from Social to Individual Scale in the Art of the Depression Era, in American Art in the 20th Century: Painting and Sculpture, 1913-1993, ed. by Christos M. Joachimides; Norman Rosenthal (Royal Academy of Arts 1993).
  • Parisi, Philip, The Texas Post Office Murals: Art for the People (Tex. A&M Press 2004).
  • Park, Marlene; Gerald, E. Markowitz Democratic Vistas: Post Offices and Public Art in the New Deal (Temple Univ. Press 1984).
  • Van Hook, Bailey, Virgin and Dynamo: Public Murals in American Architecture (Ohio Univ. Press 2003).
  • Zukin, Sharon, The Cultures of Cities (Blackwell 1995).
  • Perry Frank
    Copyright 2016 The American Studies Association

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