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Definition: Royal Family from The Macquarie Dictionary

the close family members of a monarch, especially the British monarch.


Summary Article: The Royal Family
from Whitaker's Almanack 2018
The Sovereign

ELIZABETH II, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith

Her Majesty Elizabeth Alexandra Mary of Windsor, elder daughter of King George VI and of HM Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother

Born 21 April 1926, at 17 Bruton Street, London W1

Ascended the throne 6 February 1952

Crowned 2 June 1953, at Westminster Abbey

Married 20 November 1947, in Westminster Abbey, HRH the Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh

Official residences Buckingham Palace, London SW1A 1AA; Windsor Castle, Berks; Palace of Holyroodhouse, Edinburgh

Private residences Sandringham, Norfolk; Balmoral Castle, Aberdeenshire

Husband of the Queen

HRH THE PRINCE PHILIP, DUKE OF EDINBURGH, KG, KT, OM, GCVO, GBE, Royal Victorian Chain, AK, QSO, PC, Ranger of Windsor Park

Born 10 June 1921, son of Prince and Princess Andrew of Greece and Denmark, naturalised a British subject 1947, created Duke of Edinburgh, Earl of Merioneth and Baron Greenwich 1947

Children of the Queen

HRH THE PRINCE OF WALES (Prince Charles Philip Arthur George), KG, KT, GCB, OM and Great Master of the Order of the Bath, AK, QSO, PC, ADC(P)

Born 14 November 1948, created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester 1958, succeeded as Duke of Cornwall, Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick and Baron Renfrew, Lord of the Isles and Great Steward of Scotland 1952

Married (1) 29 July 1981 Lady Diana Frances Spencer (Diana, Princess of Wales (1961–97), youngest daughter of the 8th Earl Spencer and the Hon. Mrs Shand Kydd), marriage dissolved 1996; (2) 9 April 2005 Mrs Camilla Rosemary Parker Bowles, now HRH the Duchess of Cornwall, GCVO, PC (born 17 July 1947, daughter of Major Bruce Shand and the Hon. Mrs Rosalind Shand)

Residences Clarence House, London SW1A 1BA; Highgrove, Doughton, Tetbury, Glos GL8 8TN; Birkhall, Ballater, Aberdeenshire

Issue

  1. HRH Duke of Cambridge (Prince William Arthur Philip Louis), KG, KT, PC born 21 June 1982, created Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Strathearn and Baron Carrickfergus 2011 married 29 April 2011 Catherine Elizabeth Middleton, now HRH the Duchess of Cambridge (born 9 January 1982, elder daughter of Michael and Carole Middleton), and has issue, HRH Prince George of Cambridge (Prince George Alexander Louis), born 22 July 2013; HRH Princess Charlotte of Cambridge (Princess Charlotte Elizabeth Diana), born 2 May 2015 Residence Kensington Palace, London W8 4PU; Anmer Hall, Norfolk PE31 6RW

  2. HRH Prince Henry of Wales (Prince Henry Charles Albert David), KCVO born 15 September 1984 Residence Nottingham Cottage, Kensington Palace, London W8 4PU

HRH THE PRINCESS ROYAL (Princess Anne Elizabeth Alice Louise), KG, KT, GCVO

Born 15 August 1950, declared the Princess Royal 1987

Married (1) 14 November 1973 Captain Mark Anthony Peter Phillips, CVO (born 22 September 1948); marriage dissolved 1992; (2) 12 December 1992 Vice-Adm. Sir Timothy James Hamilton Laurence, KCVO, CB, ADC (P) (born 1 March 1955)

Residence Gatcombe Park, Minchinhampton, Glos GL6 9AT

Issue

  1. Peter Mark Andrew Phillips, born 15 November 1977, married 17 May 2008 Autumn Patricia Kelly, and has issue, Savannah Phillips, born 29 December 2010; Isla Elizabeth Phillips, born 29 March 2012

  2. Zara Anne Elizabeth Tindall, MBE, born 15 May 1981, married 30 July 2011 Michael James Tindall, MBE, and has issue, Mia Grace Tindall, born 17 January 2014

HRH THE DUKE OF YORK (Prince Andrew Albert Christian Edward), KG, GCVO, ADC(P)

Born 19 February 1960, created Duke of York, Earl of Inverness and Baron Killyleagh 1986

Married 23 July 1986 Sarah Margaret Ferguson, now Sarah, Duchess of York (born 15 October 1959, younger daughter of Major Ronald Ferguson and Mrs Hector Barrantes), marriage dissolved 1996

Residence Royal Lodge, Windsor Great Park, Berks

Issue

  1. HRH Princess Beatrice of York (Princess Beatrice Elizabeth Mary), born 8 August 1988

  2. HRH Princess Eugenie of York (Princess Eugenie Victoria Helena), born 23 March 1990

HRH THE EARL OF WESSEX (Prince Edward Antony Richard Louis), KG, GCVO, ADC(P)

Born 10 March 1964, created Earl of Wessex, Viscount Severn 1999

Married 19 June 1999 Sophie Helen Rhys-Jones, now HRH the Countess of Wessex, GCVO (born 20 January 1965, daughter of Mr and Mrs Christopher Rhys-Jones)

Residence Bagshot Park, Bagshot, Surrey GU19 5HS

Issue

  1. Lady Louise Mountbatten-Windsor (Louise Alice Elizabeth Mary Mountbatten-Windsor), born 8 November 2003

  2. Viscount Severn (James Alexander Philip Theo Mountbatten-Windsor), born 17 December 2007

Nephew and Niece of the Queen

Children of HRH the Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon and the Earl of Snowdon (see House of Windsor):

EARL OF SNOWDON (DAVID ALBERT CHARLES ARMSTRONG-JONES), born 3 November 1961, married 8 October 1993 Hon. Serena Alleyne Stanhope, and has issue, Viscount Linley (Charles Patrick Inigo Armstrong-Jones), born 1 July 1999; Lady Margarita Armstrong-Jones (Margarita Elizabeth Alleyne Armstrong-Jones), born 14 May 2002

LADY SARAH CHATTO (Sarah Frances Elizabeth), born 1 May 1964, married 14 July 1994 Daniel Chatto, and has issue, Samuel David Benedict Chatto, born 28 July 1996; Arthur Robert Nathaniel Chatto, born 5 February 1999

Cousins of the Queen

Child of HRH the Duke of Gloucester and HRH Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester (see House of Windsor):

HRH THE DUKE OF GLOUCESTER (Prince Richard Alexander Walter George), KG, GCVO, Grand Prior of the Order of St John of Jerusalem

Born 26 August 1944

Married 8 July 1972 Birgitte Eva van Deurs, now HRH the Duchess of Gloucester, GCVO (born 20 June 1946, daughter of Asger Henriksen and Vivian van Deurs)

Residence Kensington Palace, London W8 4PU

Issue

  1. Earl of Ulster (Alexander Patrick Gregers Richard), born 24 October 1974 married 22 June 2002 Dr Claire Alexandra Booth, and has issue, Lord Culloden (Xan Richard Anders), born 12 March 2007; Lady Cosima Windsor (Cosima Rose Alexandra), born 20 May 2010

  2. Lady Davina Lewis (Davina Elizabeth Alice Benedikte), born 19 November 1977 married 31 July 2004 Gary Christie Lewis, and has issue, Senna Kowhai Lewis, born 22 June 2010; Tane Mahuta Lewis, born 25 May 2012

  3. Lady Rose Gilman (Rose Victoria Birgitte Louise), born 1 March 1980 married 19 July 2008 George Edward Gilman, and has issue, Lyla Beatrix Christabel Gilman, born 30 May 2010; Rufus Gilman, born 2 November 2012

Children of HRH the Duke of Kent and Princess Marina, Duchess of Kent (see House of Windsor):

HRH THE DUKE OF KENT (Prince Edward George Nicholas Paul Patrick), KG, GCMG, GCVO, ADC(P)

Born 9 October 1935

Married 8 June 1961 Katharine Lucy Mary Worsley, now HRH the Duchess of Kent, GCVO (born 22 February 1933, daughter of Sir William Worsley, Bt.)

Residence Wren House, Palace Green, London W8 4PY

Issue

  1. Earl of St Andrews (George Philip Nicholas), born 26 June 1962, married 9 January 1988 Sylvana Tomaselli, and has issue, Lord Downpatrick (Edward Edmund Maximilian George), born 2 December 1988; Lady Marina-Charlotte Windsor (Marina-Charlotte Alexandra Katharine Helen), born 30 September 1992; Lady Amelia Windsor (Amelia Sophia Theodora Mary Margaret), born 24 August 1995

  2. Lady Helen Taylor (Helen Marina Lucy), born 28 April 1964, married 18 July 1992 Timothy Verner Taylor, and has issue, Columbus George Donald Taylor, born 6 August 1994; Cassius Edward Taylor, born 26 December 1996; Eloise Olivia Katharine Taylor, born 3 March 2003; Estella Olga Elizabeth Taylor, born 21 December 2004

  3. Lord Nicholas Windsor (Nicholas Charles Edward Jonathan), born 25 July 1970, married 4 November 2006 Princess Paola Doimi de Lupis Frankopan Subic Zrinski, and has issue, Albert Louis Philip Edward Windsor, born 22 September 2007; Leopold Ernest Augustus Guelph Windsor, born 8 September 2009; Louis Arthur Nicholas Felix Windsor, born 27 May 2014

HRH PRINCESS ALEXANDRA, THE HON. LADY OGILVY (Princess Alexandra Helen Elizabeth Olga Christabel), KG, GCVO

Born 25 December 1936

Married 24 April 1963 the Rt. Hon. Sir Angus Ogilvy, KCVO (1928–2004), second son of 12th Earl of Airlie

Residence Thatched House Lodge, Richmond Park, Surrey TW10 5HP

Issue

  1. James Robert Bruce Ogilvy, born 29 February 1964, married 30 July 1988 Julia Rawlinson, and has issue, Flora Alexandra Ogilvy, born 15 December 1994; Alexander Charles Ogilvy, born 12 November 1996

  2. Marina Victoria Alexandra Ogilvy, born 31 July 1966, married 2 February 1990 Paul Julian Mowatt (marriage dissolved 1997), and has issue, Zenouska May Mowatt, born 26 May 1990; Christian Alexander Mowatt, born 4 June 1993

HRH PRINCE MICHAEL OF KENT (Prince Michael George Charles Franklin), GCVO

Born 4 July 1942

Married 30 June 1978 Baroness Marie-Christine Agnes Hedwig Ida von Reibnitz, now HRH Princess Michael of Kent (born 15 January 1945, daughter of Baron Gunther von Reibnitz)

Residence Kensington Palace, London W8 4PU

Issue

  1. Lord Frederick Windsor (Frederick Michael George David Louis), born 6 April 1979, married 12 September 2009 Sophie Winkleman, and has issue, Maud Elizabeth Daphne Marina Windsor, born 15 August 2013; Isabella Alexandra May Windsor, born 16 January 2016

  2. Lady Gabriella Windsor (Gabriella Marina Alexandra Ophelia), born 23 April 1981

ORDER OF SUCCESSION

The Succession to the Crown Act 2013 received royal assent on 25 April 2013 and makes provision for the order of succession to the Crown not to be dependent on gender and for those members of the royal family married to a Roman Catholic to retain the right of succession to the throne. The provisions of the Act came into force on 26 March 2015, following its ratification by all 15 Realms of the Commonwealth.

On the Act's commencement HRH Prince Michael of Kent and the Earl of St Andrews were restored to the succession. In addition, all male members of the royal family born after 28 October 2011 no longer precede any elder female siblings; and their place in the order of succession changed accordingly.

The following list includes all living descendants of the sons of King George V eligible to succeed to the Crown under the current legislation. Lord Nicholas Windsor, Lord Downpatrick and Lady Marina-Charlotte Windsor renounced their rights to the throne on converting to Roman Catholicism in 2001, 2003 and 2008 respectively. Their children remain in succession provided that they are in communion with the Church of England.

1

HRH the Prince of Wales

2

HRH the Duke of Cambridge

3

HRH Prince George of Cambridge

4

HRH Princess Charlotte of Cambridge

5

HRH Prince Henry of Wales

6

HRH the Duke of York

7

HRH Princess Beatrice of York

8

HRH Princess Eugenie of York

9

HRH the Earl of Wessex

10

Viscount Severn

11

Lady Louise Mountbatten-Windsor

12

HRH the Princess Royal

13

Peter Phillips

14

Savannah Phillips

15

Isla Phillips

16

Zara Tindall

17

Mia Tindall

18

Earl of Snowdon

19

Viscount Linley

20

Lady Margarita Armstrong-Jones

21

Lady Sarah Chatto

22

Samuel Chatto

23

Arthur Chatto

24

HRH the Duke of Gloucester

25

Earl of Ulster

26

Lord Culloden

27

Lady Cosima Windsor

28

Lady Davina Lewis

29

Senna Lewis

30

Tane Lewis

31

Lady Rose Gilman

32

Lyla Gilman

33

Rufus Gilman

34

HRH the Duke of Kent

35

Earl of St Andrews

36

Lady Amelia Windsor

37

Albert Windsor

38

Leopold Windsor

39

Louis Windsor

40

Lady Helen Taylor

41

Columbus Taylor

42

Cassius Taylor

43

Eloise Taylor

44

Estella Taylor

45

HRH Prince Michael of Kent

46

Lord Frederick Windsor

47

Maud Windsor

48

Isabella Windsor

49

Lady Gabriella Windsor

50

HRH Princess Alexandra, the Hon. Lady Ogilvy

51

James Ogilvy

52

Alexander Ogilvy

53

Flora Ogilvy

54

Marina Ogilvy

55

Christian Mowatt

56

Zenouska Mowatt

THE ROYAL HOUSEHOLD

The PRIVATE SECRETARY is responsible for:

  • informing and advising the Queen on constitutional, governmental and political matters in the UK, her other Realms and the wider Commonwealth, including communications with the prime minister and government departments

  • organising the Queen's domestic and overseas official programme

  • the Queen's speeches, messages, patronage, photographs, portraits and official presents

  • communications in connection with the role of the royal family

  • dealing with correspondence to the Queen from members of the public

  • royal travel policy

  • coordinating and initiating research to support engagements by members of the royal family

The DIRECTOR OF ROYAL COMMUNICATIONS is in charge of Buckingham Palace's communications office and reports to the Private Secretary. The director is responsible for:

  • developing communications strategies to enhance the public understanding of the role of the monarchy

  • briefing the British and international media on the role and duties of the Queen and issues relating to the royal family

  • responding to media enquiries

  • arranging media facilities in the UK and overseas to support royal functions and engagements

  • the management of the royal website

The Private Secretary is keeper of the royal archives and is responsible for the care of the records of the sovereign and the royal household from previous reigns, preserved in the royal archives at Windsor. As keeper, it is the Private Secretary's responsibility to ensure the proper management of the records of the present reign with a view to their transfer to the archives as and when appropriate. The Private Secretary is an ex officio trustee of the Royal Collection Trust.

The KEEPER OF THE PRIVY PURSE AND TREASURER TO THE QUEEN is responsible for:

  • the Sovereign Grant, which is the money paid from the government's Consolidated Fund to meet official expenditure relating to the Queen's duties as Head of State and Head of the Commonwealth and is provided by the government in return for the net surplus from the Crown Estate and other hereditary revenues (see also Royal Finances)

  • through the Director of Human Resources, the planning and management of personnel policy across the royal household, the allocation of employee and pensioner housing and the administration of all its pension schemes and private estates employees

  • information systems and telecommunications

  • property services at occupied royal palaces in England, comprising Buckingham Palace, St James's Palace, Clarence House, Marlborough House Mews, the residential and office areas of Kensington Palace, Windsor Castle and buildings in the Home and Great Parks of Windsor and Hampton Court Mews and Paddocks

  • audit services

  • health and safety; insurance matters

  • the Privy Purse, which is mainly financed by the net income of the Duchy of Lancaster, and meets both official and private expenditure incurred by the Queen

  • liaison with other members of the royal family and their households on financial matters

  • the Queen's private estates at Sandringham and Balmoral, the Queen's Racing Establishment and the Royal Studs and liaison with the Ascot Authority

  • the Home Park at Windsor and liaison with the Crown Estate Commissioners concerning the Home Park and the Great Park at Windsor

  • the Royal Philatelic Collection

  • administrative aspects of the Military Knights of Windsor

  • administration of the Royal Victorian Order, of which the Keeper of the Privy Purse is secretary, Long and Faithful Service Medals, and the Queen's cups, medals and prizes, and policy on commemorative medals

The Keeper of the Privy Purse is one of three royal trustees (in respect of his responsibilities for the Sovereign Grant) and is Receiver-General of the Duchy of Lancaster and a member of the Duchy's Council.

The Keeper of the Privy Purse is an ex officio trustee of the Royal Collection Trust.

The DIRECTOR OF THE PROPERTY SECTION has day-to-day responsibility for the royal household's property section:

  • fire and health and safety

  • repairs and refurbishment of buildings and new building work

  • utilities and telecommunications

  • putting up stages, tents and other work in connection with ceremonial occasions, garden parties and other official functions

The property section is also responsible, on a sub-contract basis from the DCMS, for the maintenance of Marlborough House (which is occupied by the Commonwealth Secretariat).

The MASTER OF THE HOUSEHOLD is responsible for:

  • delivering the majority of the official and private entertaining in the Queen's annual programme across all the occupied palaces and residences in the UK when required

  • periodic support for entertaining by all other members of the royal family

  • furnishings and internal decorative refurbishment of all the occupied palaces in the UK in conjunction with the Director, Royal Collection Trust

  • all operational, domestic and kitchen staff in the royal household

The COMPTROLLER, LORD CHAMBERLAIN'S OFFICE is responsible for:

  • the organisation of all ceremonial engagements, including state visits to the Queen in the UK, royal weddings and funerals, the state opening of parliament, Guards of Honour at Buckingham Palace, investitures, and the Garter and Thistle ceremonies

  • garden parties at Buckingham Palace and the Palace of Holyroodhouse

  • the Crown Jewels, which are part of the Royal Collection, when they are in use on state occasions

  • coordination of the arrangements for the Queen to be represented at funerals and memorial services and at the arrival and departure of visiting heads of state

  • delivery of all official and approved travel operations

  • advising on matters of precedence, style and titles, dress, flying of flags, gun salutes, mourning and other ceremonial issues

  • supervising the applications for Royal Warrants of Appointment

  • advising on the commercial use of royal emblems and contemporary royal photographs

  • the ecclesiastical household, the medical household, the bodyguards and certain ceremonial appointments such as Gentlemen Ushers and Pages of Honour

  • the Lords in Waiting, who represent the Queen on various occasions and escort visiting heads of state during incoming state visits

  • the Queen's bargemaster and watermen and the Queen's swans

  • the Royal Almonry and Royal Maundy Service

The Comptroller is also responsible for the Royal Mews, assisted by the CROWN EQUERRY, who has day-to-day responsibility for:

  • the provision of carriage processions for the state opening of parliament, state visits, Trooping of the Colour, Royal Ascot, the Garter Ceremony, the Thistle Service, the presentation of credentials to the Queen by incoming foreign ambassadors and high commissioners, and other state and ceremonial occasions

  • the provision of chauffeur-driven cars

  • coordinating travel arrangements by road in respect of the royal household

  • supervision and administration of the Royal Mews at Buckingham Palace, Windsor Castle, Hampton Court and the Palace of Holyroodhouse

The Comptroller also has overall responsibility for the MARSHAL OF THE DIPLOMATIC CORPS, who is responsible for the relationship between the royal household and the Diplomatic Heads of Mission in London; and the SECRETARY OF THE CENTRAL CHANCERY OF THE ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD, who administers the Orders of Chivalry, makes arrangements for investitures and the distribution of insignia, and ensures the proper public notification of awards through The London Gazette; and the DIRECTOR OF OPERATIONS, ROYAL TRAVEL, who is responsible for the provision of travel arrangements by air and rail.

The DIRECTOR, ROYAL COLLECTION TRUST is responsible for:

  • the administration and custodial control of the Royal Collection in all royal residences

  • the care, display, conservation and restoration of items in the collection

  • initiating and assisting research into the collection and publishing catalogues and books on the collection

  • making the collection accessible to the public and educating and informing the public about the collection

The Royal Collection, which contains a large number of works of art, is held by the Queen as sovereign in trust for her successors and the nation and is not owned by her as an individual. The administration, conservation and presentation of the Royal Collection are funded by the Royal Collection Trust solely from income from visitors to Windsor Castle, Buckingham Palace and the Palace of Holyroodhouse. The Royal Collection Trust is chaired by the Prince of Wales. The Lord Chamberlain, the Private Secretary and the Keeper of the Privy Purse are ex officio trustees and there are three external trustees appointed by the Queen.

The Director, Royal Collection Trust is also at present the SURVEYOR OF THE QUEEN'S WORKS OF ART, responsible for paintings, miniatures and works of art on paper, including the watercolours, prints and drawings in the Print Room at Windsor Castle, and for the books, manuscripts, coins, medals and insignia in the Royal Library.

Royal Collection Enterprises Limited is the trading subsidiary of the Royal Collection Trust. The company, whose chair is the Keeper of the Privy Purse, is responsible for:

  • managing access by the public to Windsor Castle (including Frogmore House), Buckingham Palace (including the Royal Mews and the Queen's Gallery) and the Palace of Holyroodhouse (including the Queen's Gallery)

  • running shops at each location

  • managing the images and intellectual property rights of the Royal Collection

The Director, Royal Collection Trust is also an ex officio trustee of Historic Royal Palaces.

Private Secretaries
The Queen

Office: Buckingham Palace, London SW1A 1AA T 020-7930 4832

Private Secretary to the Queen, Rt. Hon. Edward Young, CVO

Prince Philip, The Duke of Edinburgh

Office: Buckingham Palace, London SW1A 1AA T 020-7930 4832

Private Secretary, Brig. Archie Miller-Bakewell

The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall

Office: Clarence House, London SW1A 1BA T 020-7930 4832

Principal Private Secretary, Clive Alderton, LVO

The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge

Office: Kensington Palace, Palace Green, London W8 4PU T 020-7930 4832

Private Secretary to the Duke of Cambridge, Miguel Head, LVO

Private Secretary to the Duchess of Cambridge, Catherine Quinn

Prince Henry of Wales

Office, Kensington Palace, Palace Green, London W8 4PU T 020-7930 4832

Private Secretary, Ed Lane Fox

The Duke of York

Office: Buckingham Palace, London SW1A 1AA T 020-7024 4227

Private Secretary, Amanda Thirsk, LVO

The Earl and Countess of Wessex

Office: Bagshot Park, Surrey GU19 5PL T 01276-707040

Private Secretary, Tim Roberts

The Princess Royal

Office: Buckingham Palace, London SW1A 1AA T 020-7024 4199

Private Secretary, Capt. N. P. Wright, CVO, RN

The Duke and Duchess of Gloucester

Office: Kensington Palace, London W8 4PU T 020-7368 1000

Private Secretary, Lt.-Col. Alastair Todd

The Duke of Kent

Office: York House, St James's Palace, London SW1A 1BQ

T 020-7930 4872

Private Secretary, Nicholas Marden

Prince and Princess Michael of Kent

Office: Kensington Palace, London W8 4PU

W www.princemichael.org.uk

Private Secretary, Camilla Rogers

Princess Alexandra, The Hon. Lady Ogilvy

Office: Buckingham Palace, London SW1A 1AA

T 020-7024 4270

Private Secretary, Diane Duke, LVO

Senior Management of the Royal Household

Lord Chamberlain, Earl Peel, GCVO, PC

HEADS OF DEPARTMENT

Private Secretary to The Queen, Rt. Hon. Edward Young, CVO

Keeper of the Privy Purse, Sir Alan Reid, GCVO

Master of the Household, Vice-Adm. Tony Johnstone-Burt, CB, OBE

Comptroller, Lord Chamberlain's Office, Lt.-Col. Sir Andrew Ford, KCVO

Director of the Royal Collection, Jonathan Marsden, CVO

NON-EXECUTIVE MEMBERS

Private Secretary to the Duke of Edinburgh, Brig. Archie Miller-Bakewell

Principal Private Secretary to the Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall, Clive Alderton, LVO

Astronomer Royal

The post of Astronomer Royal dates back to 1675, when astronomy had many practical applications in navigation. Today the post is largely honorary, although the Astronomer Royal is expected to be available for consultation on scientific matters for as long as the holder remains a professional astronomer. The Astronomer Royal receives a stipend of £100 a year and is a member of the royal household.

Astronomer Royal, Lord Rees of Ludlow, OM, apptd 1995

Master of the Queen's Music

The office of Master of the Queen's Music is an honour conferred on a musician of great distinction. The office was first created in 1626, when the master was responsible for the court musicians. Since the reign of King George V, the position has had no fixed duties, although the Master may choose to produce compositions to mark royal or state occasions. The Master of the Queen's Music is paid an annual stipend of £15,000. In 2004 the length of appointment was changed from life tenure to a ten-year term.

Master of the Queen's Music, Judith Weir, CBE, apptd 2014

Poet Laureate

The post of Poet Laureate was officially established when John Dryden was appointed by royal warrant as Poet Laureate and Historiographer Royal in 1668. The post is attached to the royal household and was originally conferred on the holder for life; in 1999 the length of appointment was changed to a ten-year term. It is customary for the Poet Laureate to write verse to mark events of national importance. The postholder currently receives an honorarium of £5,750 a year.

The Poet Laureate, Dame Carol Ann Duffy, DBE, apptd 2009

ROYAL FINANCES

Dating back to the late 17th century the Civil List was originally used by the sovereign to supplement hereditary revenues for paying the salaries of judges, ambassadors and other government officers as well as the expenses of the royal household. In 1760, on the accession of George III, it was decided that the Civil List would be provided by parliament to cover all relevant expenditure in return for the king surrendering the hereditary revenues of the Crown. At that time parliament undertook to pay the salaries of judges, ambassadors etc. In 1831 parliament agreed also to meet the costs of the royal palaces in return for a reduction in the Civil List.

Until 1 April 2012 the Civil List met the central staff costs and running expenses of the Queen's official household. Annual grants-in-aid provided for the maintenance of the occupied royal palaces (see Royal Household for a list of occupied palaces) and royal travel.

THE SOVEREIGN GRANT

Under the Sovereign Grant Act 2011, which came into force on 1 April 2012, the funding previously provided by the Civil List and the grants-in-aid was consolidated in the Sovereign Grant, which was set at £42.8m for 2016–17. It is provided by HM Treasury from public funds in exchange for the surrender by the Queen of the revenue of the Crown Estate.

Official expenditure met by the Sovereign Grant in 2016–17 amounted to £41.9m. Royal travel accounted for £4.5m of the expenditure and property maintenance for £17.8m. The excess of Sovereign Grant over expenditure of £0.9m was transferred to the Sovereign Grant reserve. For 2016–17 the Sovereign Grant was calculated based on 15 per cent of the income account net surplus of the Crown Estate for the financial year two years previous. The Royal Trustees have agreed that from 2017–18, the Sovereign Grant will be calculated based on 25 per cent of the income account net surplus of the Crown Estate for the financial year two years previous. This provides for a Sovereign Grant of £76.1m for 2017–18. The additional grant will be used to fund the refurbishment of Buckingham Palace over a period of ten years.

The legislative requirement is for Sovereign Grant accounts to be audited by the Comptroller and Auditor-General, scrutinised by the National Audit Office, and submitted to parliament annually. They are then subjected to the same audit scrutiny as for any other government department. The annual report for the year to 31 March 2017, was published in June 2017.

2015–16

2016–17

Sovereign Grant

£40,100,000

£42,800,000

Draw-down from/(transfer to) the reserve

(£300,000)

(£900,000)

Net Funding Receipts

£39,800,000

£41,900,000

Net Expenditure

(£39,800,000)

(£41,900,000)

PARLIAMENTARY ANNUITIES

The Civil List acts provided for other members of the royal family to receive parliamentary annuities from government funds to meet the expenses of carrying out their official duties. Since 1993 these annuities have been a statutory anomaly as the Queen reimbursed HM Treasury for all of them except those paid to the late Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother and the Duke of Edinburgh. The Sovereign Grant Act 2011 repealed all the parliamentary annuities paid to the royal family, with the exception of the Duke of Edinburgh. The Duke of Edinburgh's annuity (£359,000) is now paid directly from the Consolidated Fund.

THE PRIVY PURSE

The funds received by the Privy Purse pay for official expenses incurred by the Queen as head of state and for some of the Queen's private expenditure. The revenues of the Duchy of Lancaster are the principal source of income for the privy purse. The revenues of the Duchy were retained by George III in 1760 when the hereditary revenues were surrendered. The Duchy Council reports to the Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, who is accountable directly to the sovereign rather than to parliament. However the chancellor does answer parliamentary questions on matters relating to the Duchy's responsibilities.

THE DUCHY OF LANCASTER, 1 Lancaster Place, London WC2E 7ED

Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, Rt. Hon. Sir Patrick McLoughlin, MP, apptd 2016

Chair of the Council, Sir Mark Hudson, KCVO

Chief Executive and Clerk, Nathan Thompson

Receiver-General, Sir Alan Reid, GCVO

Attorney-General, Robert Miles, QC

PERSONAL INCOME

The Queen's personal income derives mostly from investments, and is used to meet private expenditure.

Prince of Wales' Funding

The Duchy Estate was created in 1337 by Edward III for his son and heir Prince Edward (the Black Prince) who became the Duke of Cornwall. The Duchy's primary function is to provide an income from its assets for the Prince of Wales. Under a 1337 charter, confirmed by subsequent legislation, the Prince of Wales is not entitled to the proceeds or profit on the sale of Duchy assets but only to the annual income which is generated. The Duchy is responsible for the sustainable and commercial management of its properties, investment portfolio and 53,266 hectares of land, based mostly in the south-west of England. The Prince of Wales has chosen to use a proportion of his income to meet the cost of his public and charitable work. The Duchy also funds the public, charitable and private activities of the Duchess of Cornwall, the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge and Prince Henry of Wales.

THE DUCHY OF CORNWALL, 10 Buckingham Gate, London SW1E 6LA T 020-7834 7346 W www.duchyofcornwall.org

Lord Warden of the Stannaries, Sir Nicholas Bacon, Bt., OBE

Receiver-General, Hon. James Leigh-Pemberton, CVO

Attorney-General, Jonathan Crow, QC

Secretary and Keeper of the Records, Alastair Martin

Taxation

The sovereign is not legally liable to pay income tax or capital gains tax. In 1992 the Queen offered to pay income and capital gains tax on a voluntary basis from 6 April 1993, and the Prince of Wales offered to pay tax on a voluntary basis on his income from the Duchy of Cornwall (he was already taxed in all other respects).

The main provisions for the Queen and the Prince of Wales to pay tax, set out in a Memorandum of Understanding on Royal Taxation presented to parliament on 11 February 1993, are that the Queen will pay income tax and capital gains tax in respect of her private income and assets, and on the proportion of the income and capital gains of the Privy Purse used for private purposes. Inheritance tax will be paid on the Queen's assets, except for those which pass to the next sovereign, whether automatically or by gift or bequest. The Prince of Wales will pay income tax on income from the Duchy of Cornwall used for private purposes.

ROYAL SALUTES
ENGLAND

The basic royal salute is 21 rounds with an extra 20 rounds fired at Hyde Park because it is a royal park. At the Tower of London 62 rounds are fired on royal anniversaries (21 plus a further 20 because the Tower is a royal palace and a further 21 ‘for the City of London’) and 41 on other occasions. When the Queen's official birthday coincides with the Duke of Edinburgh's birthday, 124 rounds are fired from the Tower (62 rounds for each birthday). Gun salutes occur on the following royal anniversaries:

  • Accession Day

  • The Queen's birthday

  • Coronation Day

  • Duke of Edinburgh's birthday

  • The Queen's Official Birthday

  • The Prince of Wales' birthday

  • State opening of parliament

Gun salutes also occur when parliament is prorogued by the sovereign, on royal births and when a visiting head of state meets the sovereign in London, Windsor or Edinburgh.

In London, salutes are fired at Hyde Park and the Tower of London although on some occasions (state visits, state opening of parliament and the Queen's birthday parade) Green Park is used instead of Hyde Park. Other military saluting stations in England are at Colchester, Dover, Plymouth, Woolwich and York.

Constable of the Royal Palace and Fortress of London, Gen. Lord Houghton of Richmond, GCB, CBE, ADC

Lieutenant of the Tower of London, Lt.-Gen. Sir Simon Mayall, KBE, CB

Master Gunner of St James's Park, Lt.-Gen. Sir Andrew Gregory, KBE, CB

Resident Governor and Keeper of the Jewel House, Col. Richard Harrold, OBE

Master Gunner within the Tower, HRH Prince Michael of Kent, GCVO

SCOTLAND

Royal salutes are authorised at Edinburgh Castle and Stirling Castle. A salute of 21 guns is fired on the following occasions:

  • the anniversaries of the birth, accession and coronation of the sovereign

  • the anniversary of the birth of the Duke of Edinburgh

A salute of 21 guns is fired in Edinburgh on the occasion of the opening of the general assembly of the Church of Scotland. A salute of 21 guns may also be fired in Edinburgh on the arrival of HM The Queen or a member of the royal family who is a Royal Highness on an official visit.

Military saluting stations are also situated at Cardiff Castle in Wales, Hillsborough Castle in Northern Ireland and in Gibraltar.

MILITARY RANKS AND TITLES
The Queen
ARMY

Colonel-in-Chief

The Life Guards; The Blues and Royals (Royal Horse Guards and 1st Dragoons); The Royal Scots Dragoon Guards (Carabiniers and Greys); The Royal Lancers; The Royal Tank Regiment; Corps of Royal Engineers; Grenadier Guards; Coldstream Guards; Scots Guards; Irish Guards; Welsh Guards; The Royal Regiment of Scotland; The Duke of Lancaster's Regiment (King's, Lancashire and Border); The Royal Welsh; Adjutant General's Corps; The Governor General's Horse Guards (of Canada); The King's Own Calgary Regiment (Royal Canadian Armoured Corps); Canadian Forces Military Engineering Branch; Le Royal 22e Regiment (of Canada); The Governor General's Foot Guards (of Canada); The Canadian Grenadier Guards; The Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry Highlanders; Le Régiment de la Chaudière (of Canada); The Royal New Brunswick Regiment; The North Shore (New Brunswick) Regiment; 48th Highlanders of Canada; The Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders of Canada (Princess Louise's); The Calgary Highlanders; Royal Australian Engineers; Royal Australian Infantry Corps; Royal Australian Army Ordnance Corps; Royal Australian Army Nursing Corps; The Corps of Royal New Zealand Engineers; Royal New Zealand Infantry Regiment; Malawi Rifles

Affiliated Colonel-in-Chief

The Queen's Gurkha Engineers

Captain-General

Royal Regiment of Artillery; The Honourable Artillery Company; Combined Cadet Force; Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery; Royal Regiment of Australian Artillery; Royal Regiment of New Zealand Artillery; Royal New Zealand Armoured Corps

Royal Colonel

Balaklava Company, 5th Battalion The Royal Regiment of Scotland

Patron

Royal Army Chaplains’ Department

ROYAL AIR FORCE

Air Commodore-in-Chief

Royal Auxiliary Air Force; Royal Air Force Regiment; Air Reserve (of Canada); Royal Australian Air Force Reserve; Territorial Air Force (of New Zealand)

Commandant-in-Chief

RAF College, Cranwell

Royal Honorary Air Commodore

RAF Marham; 603 (City of Edinburgh) Squadron Royal Auxiliary Air Force

TRI-SERVICE

Colonel-in-Chief

The Canadian Armed Forces Legal Branch

Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
ROYAL NAVY

Lord High Admiral of the United Kingdom

Admiral of the Fleet

Admiral of the Fleet, Royal Australian Navy

Admiral of the Fleet, Royal New Zealand Navy

Admiral, Royal Canadian Navy

Admiral, Royal Canadian Sea Cadets

ROYAL MARINES

Captain-General

ARMY

Field Marshal

Field Marshal, Australian Military Forces

Field Marshal, New Zealand Army

General, Royal Canadian Army

Colonel-in-Chief

The Queen's Royal Hussars (Queen's Own and Royal Irish); The Rifles; Corps of Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers; Intelligence Corps; Army Cadet Force Association; The Royal Canadian Regiment; The Royal Hamilton Light Infantry (Wentworth Regiment of Canada); The Cameron Highlanders of Ottawa; The Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders of Canada; The Seaforth Highlanders of Canada; The Royal Canadian Army Cadets; The Royal Australian Corps of Electrical and Mechanical Engineers; The Australian Army Cadet Corps

Colonel

Grenadier Guards

Royal Colonel

The Highlanders, 4th Battalion The Royal Regiment of Scotland

Honorary Colonel

The Trinidad and Tobago Regiment

Member

Honourable Artillery Company

ROYAL AIR FORCE

Marshal of the Royal Air Force

Marshal of the Royal Australian Air Force

Marshal of the Royal New Zealand Air Force

General, Royal Canadian Air Force

Air Commodore-in-Chief

Royal Canadian Air Cadets

Honorary Air Commodore

RAF Northolt

The Prince of Wales
ROYAL NAVY

Admiral of the Fleet

Admiral of the Fleet, Royal New Zealand Navy

Vice-Admiral

Royal Canadian Navy

Commodore-in-Chief

Royal Naval Command Plymouth; Fleet Atlantic, Royal Canadian Navy

ARMY

Field Marshal

Lieutenant-General

Canadian Army

Colonel-in-Chief

The Royal Dragoon Guards; The Parachute Regiment; The Royal Gurkha Rifles; Army Air Corps; The Royal Canadian Dragoons; Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians); The Royal Regiment of Canada; Royal Winnipeg Rifles; Royal Australian Armoured Corps; The Royal Pacific Islands Regiment; 1st The Queen's Dragoon Guards; The Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) of Canada; The Toronto Scottish Regiment (Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother's Own); The Mercian Regiment; 2nd Battalion The Irish Regiment of Canada

Royal Colonel

The Black Watch, 3rd Battalion The Royal Regiment of Scotland; 51st Highland, 7th Battalion The Royal Regiment of Scotland

Colonel

The Welsh Guards

Royal Honorary Colonel

The Queen's Own Yeomanry

ROYAL AIR FORCE

Marshal of the RAF

Lieutenant-General

Royal Canadian Air Force

Honorary Air Commodore

RAF Valley

Air Commodore-in-Chief

Royal New Zealand Air Force

Colonel-in-Chief

Air Reserve Canada

The Duchess of Cornwall
ROYAL NAVY

Commodore-in-Chief

Royal Naval Medical Services; Naval Chaplaincy Services

ARMY

Colonel-in-Chief

Queen's Own Rifles of Canada; Royal Australian Corps of Military Police

Royal Colonel

4th Battalion The Rifles

ROYAL AIR FORCE

Honorary Air Commodore

RAF Halton; RAF Leeming

The Duke of Cambridge
ROYAL NAVY

Lieutenant Commander

Commodore-in-Chief

Scotland Command; Submarines Command

ARMY

Colonel

Irish Guards

Major

The Blues and Royals (Royal Horse Guards and 1st Dragoons)

ROYAL AIR FORCE

Squadron Leader

Honorary Air Commandant

RAF Coningsby

The Duchess of Cambridge
ROYAL AIR FORCE

Honorary Air Commandant

Air Cadets

Prince Henry of Wales
ROYAL NAVY

Commodore-in-Chief

Small Ships and Diving Command

ARMY

Captain

The Blues and Royals (Royal Horse Guards and 1st Dragoons)

ROYAL AIR FORCE

Honorary Air Commandant

RAF Honington

The Duke of York
ROYAL NAVY

Vice-Admiral

Commodore-in-Chief

Fleet Air Arm

Admiral of the Marine Society and Sea Cadets

ARMY

Colonel-in-Chief

The Royal Irish Regiment (27th (Inniskilling), 83rd, 87th and The Ulster Defence Regiment); The Yorkshire Regiment (14th/15th, 19th and 33rd/76th Foot); Small Arms School Corps; The Queen's York Rangers (First Americans); Royal New Zealand Army Logistics Regiment; The Royal Highland Fusiliers of Canada; The Princess Louise Fusiliers (Canada)

Deputy Colonel-in-Chief

The Royal Lancers

Royal Colonel

The Royal Highland Fusiliers, 2nd Battalion The Royal Regiment of Scotland

ROYAL AIR FORCE

Honorary Air Commodore

RAF Lossiemouth

The Earl of Wessex
ROYAL NAVY

Commodore-in-Chief

Royal Fleet Auxiliary

Patron

Royal Fleet Auxiliary Association

ARMY

Colonel-in-Chief

Hastings and Prince Edward Regiment; Saskatchewan Dragoons; Prince Edward Island Regiment

Royal Colonel

2nd Battalion, The Rifles

Royal Honorary Colonel

Royal Wessex Yeomanry; The London Regiment

ROYAL AIR FORCE

Honorary Air Commodore

RAF Waddington

The Countess of Wessex
ARMY

Colonel-in-Chief

Corps of Army Music; Queen Alexandra's Royal Army Nursing Corps; The Lincoln and Welland Regiment; South Alberta Light Horse Regiment

Royal Colonel

5th Battalion, The Rifles

Patron

Queen Alexandra's Royal Army Nursing Corps Association

ROYAL AIR FORCE

Honorary Air Commodore

RAF Wittering

ROYAL NAVY

Sponsor

HMS Daring

The Princess Royal
ROYAL NAVY

Admiral (Chief Commandant for Women in the Royal Navy)

Commodore-in-Chief

HM Naval Base Portsmouth; Fleet Pacific, Royal Canadian Navy

ARMY

Colonel-in-Chief

The King's Royal Hussars; Royal Corps of Signals; Royal Logistic Corps; The Royal Army Veterinary Corps; 8th Canadian Hussars (Princess Louise's); Royal Newfoundland Regiment; Canadian Forces Communications and Electronics Branch; The Grey and Simcoe Foresters; The Royal Regina Rifles; Canadian Forces Medical Branch; Royal Canadian Hussars; Royal Australian Corps of Signals; Royal Australian Corps of Transport; Royal New Zealand Corps of Signals; Royal New Zealand Nursing Corps

Affiliated Colonel-in-Chief

The Queen's Gurkha Signals; The Queen's Own Gurkha Transport Regiment

Royal Colonel

The Royal Scots Borderers, 1st Battalion The Royal Regiment of Scotland; 52nd Lowland, 6th Battalion The Royal Regiment of Scotland

Colonel

The Blues and Royals (Royal Horse Guards and 1st Dragoons)

Honorary Colonel

University of London Officers’ Training Corps

Commandant-in-Chief

First Aid Nursing Yeomanry (Princess Royal's Volunteer Corps)

ROYAL AIR FORCE

Honorary Air Commodore

RAF Brize Norton; University of London Air Squadron

The Duke of Gloucester
ARMY

Colonel-in-Chief

The Royal Anglian Regiment; Royal Army Medical Corps; Royal New Zealand Army Medical Corps

Deputy Colonel-in-Chief

The Royal Logistic Corps

Royal Colonel

6th Battalion, The Rifles

Royal Honorary Colonel

Royal Monmouthshire Royal Engineers (Militia)

ROYAL AIR FORCE

Honorary Air Marshal

Honorary Air Commodore

RAF Odiham; No. 501 (County of Gloucester) Logistic Support Squadron

The Duchess of Gloucester
ARMY

Colonel-in-Chief

Royal Army Dental Corps; Royal Australian Army Educational Corps; Royal New Zealand Army Educational Corps; Royal Canadian Dental Corps; The Bermuda Regiment

Deputy Colonel-in-Chief

Adjutant General's Corps

Royal Colonel

7th Battalion, The Rifles

Vice-Patron

Adjutant General's Corps Regimental Association

Patron

Royal Army Educational Corps Association; Army Families Federation

The Duke of Kent
ARMY

Field Marshal

Colonel-in-Chief

The Royal Regiment of Fusiliers; Lorne Scots (Peel, Dufferin and Hamilton Regiment)

Deputy Colonel-in-Chief

The Royal Scots Dragoon Guards (Carabiniers and Greys)

Royal Colonel

1st Battalion The Rifles

Colonel

Scots Guards

ROYAL AIR FORCE

Honorary Air Chief Marshal

The Duchess of Kent
ARMY

Honorary Major-General

Deputy Colonel-in-Chief

The Royal Dragoon Guards; Adjutant General's Corps; The Royal Logistic Corps

Prince Michael of Kent
ROYAL NAVY

Honorary Vice-Admiral of the Royal Naval Reserves

Commodore-in-Chief of the Maritime Reserves

ARMY

Colonel-in-Chief

Essex and Kent Scottish Regiment (Ontario)

Royal Honorary Colonel

Honourable Artillery Company

Senior Colonel

King's Royal Hussars

ROYAL AIR FORCE

Honorary Air Marshal

RAF Benson

Princess Alexandra, the Hon. Lady Ogilvy
ROYAL NAVY

Patron

Queen Alexandra's Royal Naval Nursing Service

ARMY

Colonel-in-Chief

The Canadian Scottish Regiment (Princess Mary's)

Deputy Colonel-in-Chief

The Royal Lancers

Royal Colonel

3rd Battalion The Rifles

Royal Honorary Colonel

The Royal Yeomanry

ROYAL AIR FORCE

Patron and Air Chief Commandant

Princess Mary's RAF Nursing Service

KINGS AND QUEENS
ENGLISH KINGS AND QUEENS 927 TO 1603
HOUSES OF CERDIC AND DENMARK

Reign

927–939

ÆTHELSTAN

Son of Edward the Elder, by Ecgwynn, and grandson of Alfred acceded to Wessex and Mercia c.924, established direct rule over Northumbria 927, effectively creating the Kingdom of England reigned 15 years

939–946

EDMUND I

born 921, son of Edward the Elder, by Eadgifu married (1) Ælfgifu (2) Æthelflæd killed aged 25 reigned 6 years

946–955

EADRED

Son of Edward the Elder, by Eadgifu reigned 9 years

955–959

EADWIG

born before 943, son of Edmund and Ælfgifu married Ælfgifu reigned 3 years

959–975

EDGAR I

born 943, son of Edmund and Ælfgifu married (1) Æthelflæd (2) Wulfthryth (3) Ælfthryth died aged 32 reigned 15 years

975–978

EDWARD I (the Martyr)

born c.962, son of Edgar and Æthelflæd assassinated aged c.16 reigned 2 years

978–1016

ÆTHELRED (the Unready)

born 968/969, son of Edgar and Ælfthryth married (1) Ælfgifu (2) Emma, daughter of Richard I, Count of Normandy, 1013–14 dispossessed of kingdom by Swegn Forkbeard (King of Denmark 987–1014) died aged c.47, reigned 38 years

1016

EDMUND II (Ironside)

(Apr–Nov)

born before 993, son of Æthelred and Ælfgifu married Ealdgyth died aged over 23 reigned 7 months

1016–1035

CNUT (Canute)

born c.995, son of Swegn Forkbeard, King of Denmark, and Gunhild married (1) Ælfgifu (2) Emma, widow of Æthelred the Unready. Gained submission of West Saxons 1015, Northumbrians 1016, Mercia 1016, King of all England after Edmund's death, King of Denmark 1019–35, King of Norway 1028–35 died aged c.40 reigned 19 years

1035–1040

HAROLD I (Harefoot)

born 1016/17, son of Cnut and Ælfgifu married Ælfgifu 1035 recognised as regent for himself and his brother Harthacnut; 1037 recognised as king died aged c.23 reigned 4 years

1040–1042

HARTHACNUT (Harthacanute)

born c.1018, son of Cnut and Emma. Titular king of Denmark from 1028, acknowledged King of England 1035–7 with Harold I as regent; effective king after Harold's death died aged c.24 reigned 2 years

1042–1066

EDWARD II (the Confessor)

born between 1002 and 1005, son of Æthelred the Unready and Emma married Eadgyth, daughter of Godwine, Earl of Wessex died aged over 60 reigned 23 years

1066

HAROLD II (Godwinesson)

(Jan–Oct)

born c.1020, son of Godwine, Earl of Wessex, and Gytha married (1) Eadgyth (2) Ealdgyth killed in battle aged c.46 reigned 10 months

THE HOUSE OF NORMANDY

1066–1087

WILLIAM I (the Conqueror)

born 1027/8, son of Robert I, Duke of Normandy; obtained the Crown by conquest married Matilda, daughter of Baldwin, Count of Flanders died aged c.60, reigned 20 years

1087–1100

WILLIAM II (Rufus)

born between 1056 and 1060, third son of William I; succeeded his father in England only killed aged c.40 reigned 12 years

1100–1135

HENRY I (Beauclerk)

born 1068, fourth son of William I married (1) Edith or Matilda, daughter of Malcolm III of Scotland (2) Adela, daughter of Godfrey, Count of Louvain died aged 67 reigned 35 years

1135–1154

STEPHEN

born not later than 1100, third son of Adela, daughter of William I, and Stephen, Count of Blois married Matilda, daughter of Eustace, Count of Boulogne. Feb–Nov 1141 held captive by adherents of Matilda, daughter of Henry I, who contested the Crown until 1153 died aged over 53 reigned 18 years

THE HOUSE OF ANJOU (PLANTAGENETS)

1154–1189

HENRY II (Curtmantle)

born 1133, son of Matilda, daughter of Henry I, and Geoffrey, Count of Anjou married Eleanor, daughter of William, Duke of Aquitaine, and divorced queen of Louis VII of France died aged 56 reigned 34 years

1189–1199

RICHARD I (Coeur de Lion)

born 1157, third son of Henry II married Berengaria, daughter of Sancho VI, King of Navarre died aged 42 reigned 9 years

1199–1216

JOHN (Lackland)

born 1167, fifth son of Henry II married (1) Isabella or Avisa, daughter of William, Earl of Gloucester (divorced) (2) Isabella, daughter of Aymer, Count of Angoulême died aged 48 reigned 17 years

1216–1272

HENRY III

born 1207, son of John and Isabella of Angoulême married Eleanor, daughter of Raymond, Count of Provence died aged 65 reigned 56 years

1272–1307

EDWARD I (Longshanks)

born 1239, eldest son of Henry III married (1) Eleanor, daughter of Ferdinand III, King of Castile (2) Margaret, daughter of Philip III of France died aged 68 reigned 34 years

1307–1327

EDWARD II

born 1284, eldest surviving son of Edward I and Eleanor married Isabella, daughter of Philip IV of France deposed Jan 1327 killed Sep 1327 aged 43 reigned 19 years

1327–1377

EDWARD III

born 1312, eldest son of Edward II married Philippa, daughter of William, Count of Hainault died aged 64 reigned 50 years

1377–1399

RICHARD II

born 1367, son of Edward (the Black Prince), eldest son of Edward III married (1) Anne, daughter of Emperor Charles IV (2) Isabelle, daughter of Charles VI of France deposed Sep 1399 killed Feb 1400 aged 33 reigned 22 years

THE HOUSE OF LANCASTER

1399–1413

HENRY IV

born 1366, son of John of Gaunt, fourth son of Edward III, and Blanche, daughter of Henry, Duke of Lancaster married (1) Mary, daughter of Humphrey, Earl of Hereford (2) Joan, daughter of Charles, King of Navarre, and widow of John, Duke of Brittany died aged c.47 reigned 13 years

1413–1422

HENRY V

born 1387, eldest surviving son of Henry IV and Mary married Catherine, daughter of Charles VI of France died aged 34 reigned 9 years

1422–1471

HENRY VI

born 1421, son of Henry V married Margaret, daughter of René, Duke of Anjou and Count of Provence deposed Mar 1461 restored Oct 1470 deposed Apr 1471 killed May 1471 aged 49 reigned 39 years

THE HOUSE OF YORK

1461–1483

EDWARD IV

born 1442, eldest son of Richard of York (grandson of Edmund, fifth son of Edward III; and son of Anne, great-granddaughter of Lionel, third son of Edward III) married Elizabeth Woodville, daughter of Richard, Lord Rivers, and widow of Sir John Grey acceded Mar 1461 deposed Oct 1470 restored Apr 1471 died aged 40 reigned 21 years

1483

EDWARD V

(Apr–Jun)

born 1470, eldest son of Edward IV deposed Jun 1483, died probably Jul–Sep 1483, aged 12 reigned 2 months

1483–1485

RICHARD III

born 1452, fourth son of Richard of York married Anne Neville, daughter of Richard, Earl of Warwick, and widow of Edward, Prince of Wales, son of Henry VI killed in battle aged 32 reigned 2 years

THE HOUSE OF TUDOR

* Depending on whether the date of her predecessor's death (6 July) or that of her official proclamation as Queen (10 July) is taken as the beginning of her reign

1485–1509

HENRY VII

born 1457, son of Margaret Beaufort (great-granddaughter of John of Gaunt, fourth son of Edward III) and Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond married Elizabeth, daughter of Edward IV died aged 52 reigned 23 years

1509–1547

HENRY VIII

born 1491, second son of Henry VII married (1) Catherine, daughter of Ferdinand II, King of Aragon, and widow of his elder brother Arthur (divorced) (2) Anne, daughter of Sir Thomas Boleyn (executed) (3) Jane, daughter of Sir John Seymour (died in childbirth) (4) Anne, daughter of John, Duke of Cleves (divorced) (5) Catherine Howard, niece of the Duke of Norfolk (executed) (6) Catherine, daughter of Sir Thomas Parr and widow of Lord Latimer died aged 55 reigned 37 years

1547–1553

EDWARD VI

born 1537, son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour died aged 15 reigned 6 years

1553

JANE

*(6/10–19 Jul)

born 1537, daughter of Frances (daughter of Mary Tudor, the younger daughter of Henry VII) and Henry Grey, Duke of Suffolk married Lord Guildford Dudley, son of the Duke of Northumberland deposed Jul 1553 executed Feb 1554 aged 16 reigned 13/9 days

1553–1558

MARY I

born 1516, daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon married Philip II of Spain died aged 42 reigned 5 years

1558–1603

ELIZABETH I

born 1533, daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn died aged 69 reigned 44 years

BRITISH KINGS AND QUEENS SINCE 1603
THE HOUSE OF STUART

Reign

1603–1625

JAMES I (VI OF SCOTLAND)

born 1566, son of Mary, Queen of Scots (granddaughter of Margaret Tudor, elder daughter of Henry VII), and Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley married Anne, daughter of Frederick II of Denmark died aged 58 reigned 22 years

1625–1649

CHARLES I

born 1600, second son of James I married Henrietta Maria, daughter of Henry IV of France executed 1649 aged 48 reigned 23 years

INTERREGNUM 1649–1660

1649–1653

Government by a council of state

1653–1658

Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector

1658–1659

Richard Cromwell, Lord Protector

Reign

1660–1685

CHARLES II

born 1630, eldest son of Charles I married Catherine, daughter of John of Portugal died aged 54 reigned 24 years

1685–1688

JAMES II (VII OF SCOTLAND)

born 1633, second son of Charles I married (1) Lady Anne Hyde, daughter of Edward, Earl of Clarendon (2) Mary, daughter of Alphonso, Duke of Modena. Reign ended with flight from kingdom Dec 1688 died 1701 aged 67 reigned 3 years

INTERREGNUM 11 Dec 1688 to 12 Feb 1689

Reign

1689–1702

WILLIAM III

born 1650, son of William II, Prince of Orange, and Mary Stuart, daughter of Charles I married Mary, elder daughter of James II died aged 51 reigned 13 years

and

1689–1694

MARY II

born 1662, elder daughter of James II and Anne died aged 32 reigned 5 years

1702–1714

ANNE

born 1665, younger daughter of James II and Anne married Prince George of Denmark, son of Frederick III of Denmark died aged 49 reigned 12 years

THE HOUSE OF HANOVER

1714–1727

GEORGE I (Elector of Hanover)

born 1660, son of Sophia (daughter of Frederick, Elector Palatine, and Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of James I) and Ernest Augustus, Elector of Hanover married Sophia Dorothea, daughter of George William, Duke of Lüneburg-Celle died aged 67 reigned 12 years

1727–1760

GEORGE II

born 1683, son of George I married Caroline, daughter of John Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Anspach died aged 76 reigned 33 years

1760–1820

GEORGE III

born 1738, son of Frederick, eldest son of George II married Charlotte, daughter of Charles Louis, Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz died aged 81 reigned 59 years

REGENCY 1811–1820

Prince of Wales regent owing to the insanity of George III

Reign

1820–1830

GEORGE IV

born 1762, eldest son of George III married Caroline, daughter of Charles, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel died aged 67 reigned 10 years

1830–1837

WILLIAM IV

born 1765, third son of George III married Adelaide, daughter of George, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen died aged 71 reigned 7 years

1837–1901

VICTORIA

born 1819, daughter of Edward, fourth son of George III married Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha died aged 81 reigned 63 years

THE HOUSE OF SAXE-COBURG AND GOTHA

1901–1910

EDWARD VII

born 1841, eldest son of Victoria and Albert married Alexandra, daughter of Christian IX of Denmark died aged 68 reigned 9 years

THE HOUSE OF WINDSOR

1910–1936

GEORGE V

born 1865, second son of Edward VII married Victoria Mary, daughter of Francis, Duke of Teck died aged 70 reigned 25 years

1936

EDWARD VIII

(20 Jan–11 Dec)

born 1894, eldest son of George V married (1937) Mrs Wallis Simpson abdicated 1936 died 1972 aged 77 reigned 10 months

1936–1952

GEORGE VI

born 1895, second son of George V married Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, daughter of 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne died aged 56 reigned 15 years

1952–

ELIZABETH II

born 1926, elder daughter of George VI married Philip, son of Prince Andrew of Greece

KINGS AND QUEENS OF SCOTS 1016 TO 1603

Reign

1016–1034

MALCOLM II

born c.954, son of Kenneth II acceded to Alba 1005, secured Lothian c.1016, obtained Strathclyde for his grandson Duncan c.1016, thus reigning over an area approximately the same as that governed by later rulers of Scotland died aged c.80 reigned 18 years

THE HOUSE OF ATHOLL

Reign

1034–1040

DUNCAN I

son of Bethoc, daughter of Malcolm II, and Crinan, Mormaer of Atholl married a cousin of Siward, Earl of Northumbria reigned 5 years

1040–1057

MACBETH

born c.1005, son of a daughter of Malcolm II and Finlaec, Mormaer of Moray married Gruoch, granddaughter of Kenneth III killed aged c.52 reigned 17 years

1057–1058

LULACH

(Aug–Mar)

born c.1032, son of Gillacomgan, Mormaer of Moray, and Gruoch (and stepson of Macbeth) died aged c.26 reigned 7 months

1058–1093

MALCOLM III (Canmore)

born c.1031, elder son of Duncan I married (1) Ingibiorg (2) Margaret (St Margaret), granddaughter of Edmund II of England killed in battle aged c.62 reigned 35 years

1093–1097

DONALD III BÁN

born c.1033, second son of Duncan I deposed May 1094 restored Nov 1094 deposed Oct 1097 reigned 3 years

1094

DUNCAN II

(May–Nov)

born c.1060, elder son of Malcolm III and Ingibiorg married Octreda of Dunbar killed aged c.34 reigned 6 months

1097–1107

EDGAR

born c.1074, second son of Malcolm III and Margaret died aged c.32 reigned 9 years

1107–1124

ALEXANDER I (the Fierce)

born c.1077, fifth son of Malcolm III and Margaret married Sybilla, illegitimate daughter of Henry I of England died aged c.47 reigned 17 years

1124–1153

DAVID I (the Saint)

born c.1085, sixth son of Malcolm III and Margaret married Matilda, daughter of Waltheof, Earl of Huntingdon died aged c.68 reigned 29 years

1153–1165

MALCOLM IV (the Maiden)

born c.1141, son of Henry, Earl of Huntingdon, second son of David I died aged c.24 reigned 12 years

1165–1214

WILLIAM I (the Lion)

born c.1142, brother of Malcolm IV married Ermengarde, daughter of Richard, Viscount of Beaumont died aged c.72 reigned 49 years

1214–1249

ALEXANDER II

born 1198, son of William I married (1) Joan, daughter of John, King of England (2) Marie, daughter of Ingelram de Coucy died aged 50 reigned 34 years

1249–1286

ALEXANDER III

born 1241, son of Alexander II and Marie married (1) Margaret, daughter of Henry III of England (2) Yolande, daughter of the Count of Dreux killed accidentally aged 44 reigned 36 years

1286–1290

MARGARET (the Maid of Norway)

born 1283, daughter of Margaret (daughter of Alexander III) and Eric II of Norway died aged 7 reigned 4 years

FIRST INTERREGNUM 1290–1292

Throne disputed by 13 competitors. Crown awarded to John Balliol by adjudication of Edward I of England

THE HOUSE OF BALLIOL

Reign

1292–1296

JOHN (Balliol)

born c.1250, son of Dervorguilla, great-great-granddaughter of David I, and John de Balliol married Isabella, daughter of John, Earl of Surrey abdicated 1296 died 1313 aged c.63 reigned 3 years

SECOND INTERREGNUM 1296–1306

Edward I of England declared John Balliol to have forfeited the throne for contumacy in 1296 and took the government of Scotland into his own hands

THE HOUSE OF BRUCE

Reign

1306–1329

ROBERT I (Bruce)

born 1274, son of Robert Bruce and Marjorie, Countess of Carrick, and great-grandson of the second daughter of David, Earl of Huntingdon, brother of William I married (1) Isabella, daughter of Donald, Earl of Mar (2) Elizabeth, daughter of Richard, Earl of Ulster died aged 54 reigned 23 years

1329–1371

DAVID II

born 1324, son of Robert I and Elizabeth married (1) Joanna, daughter of Edward II of England (2) Margaret Drummond, widow of Sir John Logie (divorced) died aged 46 reigned 41 years

1332 (Sep–Dec) Edward Balliol, son of John Balliol

1333–1336 Edward Balliol

THE HOUSE OF STEWART

Reign

1371–1390

ROBERT II (Stewart)

born 1316, son of Marjorie (daughter of Robert I) and Walter, High Steward of Scotland married (1) Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Robert Mure of Rowallan (2) Euphemia, daughter of Hugh, Earl of Ross died aged 74 reigned 19 years

1390–1406

ROBERT III

born c.1337, son of Robert II and Elizabeth married Annabella, daughter of Sir John Drummond of Stobhall died aged c.69 reigned 16 years

1406–1437

JAMES I

born 1394, son of Robert III married Joan Beaufort, daughter of John, Earl of Somerset assassinated aged 42 reigned 30 years

1437–1460

JAMES II

born 1430, son of James I married Mary, daughter of Arnold, Duke of Gueldres killed accidentally aged 29 reigned 23 years

1460–1488

JAMES III

born 1452, son of James II married Margaret, daughter of Christian I of Denmark assassinated aged 36 reigned 27 years

1488–1513

JAMES IV

born 1473, son of James III married Margaret Tudor, daughter of Henry VII of England killed in battle aged 40 reigned 25 years

1513–1542

JAMES V

born 1512, son of James IV married (1) Madeleine, daughter of Francis I of France (2) Mary of Lorraine, daughter of the Duc de Guise died aged 30 reigned 29 years

1542–1567

MARY

born 1542, daughter of James V and Mary married (1) the Dauphin, afterwards Francis II of France (2) Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley (3) James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell abdicated 1567, prisoner in England from 1568, executed 1587 reigned 24 years

1567–1625

JAMES VI (and I of England)

born 1566, son of Mary, Queen of Scots, and Henry, Lord Darnley acceded 1567 to the Scottish throne reigned 58 years succeeded 1603 to the English throne, so joining the English and Scottish crowns in one person. The two kingdoms remained distinct until 1707 when the parliaments of the kingdoms became conjoined

WELSH SOVEREIGNS AND PRINCES

Wales was ruled by sovereign princes from the earliest times until the death of Llywelyn in 1282. The first English Prince of Wales was the son of Edward I, who was born in Caernarvon town on 25 April 1284. According to a discredited legend, he was presented to the Welsh chieftains as their prince, in fulfilment of a promise that they should have a prince who ‘could not speak a word of English’ and should be native born. This son, who afterwards became Edward II, was created ‘Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester’ at the Lincoln Parliament on 7 February 1301.

The title Prince of Wales is borne after individual conferment and is not inherited at birth, though some Princes have been declared and styled Prince of Wales but never formally so created (s.). The title was conferred on Prince Charles by the Queen on 26 July 1958. He was invested at Caernarvon on 1 July 1969.

INDEPENDENT PRINCES AD 844 TO 1282

844–878

Rhodri the Great

878–916

Anarawd, son of Rhodri

916–950

Hywel Dda, the Good

950–979

Iago ab Idwal (or Ieuaf)

979–985

Hywel ab Ieuaf, the Bad

985–986

Cadwallon, his brother

986–999

Maredudd ab Owain ap Hywel Dda

999–1005

Cynan ap Hywel ab Ieuaf

1005–1018

Aeddan ap Blegywyrd

1018–1023

Llywelyn ap Seisyll

1023–1039

Iago ab Idwal ap Meurig

1039–1063

Gruffydd ap Llywelyn ap Seisyll

1063–1075

Bleddyn ap Cynfyn

1075–1081

Trahaern ap Caradog

1081–1137

Gruffydd ap Cynan ab Iago

1137–1170

Owain Gwynedd

1170–1194

Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd

1194–1240

Llywelyn Fawr, the Great

1240–1246

Dafydd ap Llywelyn

1246–1282

Llywelyn ap Gruffydd ap Llywelyn

ENGLISH PRINCES SINCE 1301

1301

Edward (Edward II)

1343

Edward the Black Prince, son of Edward III

1376

Richard (Richard II), son of the Black Prince

1399

Henry of Monmouth (Henry V)

1454

Edward of Westminster, son of Henry VI

1471

Edward of Westminster (Edward V)

1483

Edward, son of Richard III (d. 1484)

1489

Arthur Tudor, son of Henry VII

1504

Henry Tudor (Henry VIII)

1610

Henry Stuart, son of James I (d. 1612)

1616

Charles Stuart (Charles I)

c.1638 (s.)

Charles Stuart (Charles II)

1688 (s.)

James Francis Edward Stuart (The Old Pretender), son of James II (d. 1766)

1714

George Augustus (George II)

1729

Frederick Lewis, son of George II (d. 1751)

1751

George William Frederick (George III)

1762

George Augustus Frederick (George IV)

1841

Albert Edward (Edward VII)

1901

George (George V)

1910

Edward (Edward VIII)

1958

Charles, son of Elizabeth II

PRINCESSES ROYAL

The style Princess Royal is conferred at the sovereign's discretion on his or her eldest daughter. It is an honorary title, held for life, and cannot be inherited or passed on. It was first conferred on Princess Mary, daughter of Charles I, in approximately 1642.

c.1642

Princess Mary (1631–60), daughter of Charles I

1727

Princess Anne (1709–59), daughter of George II

1766

Princess Charlotte (1766–1828), daughter of George III

1840

Princess Victoria (1840–1901), daughter of Victoria

1905

Princess Louise (1867–1931), daughter of Edward VII

1932

Princess Mary (1897–1965), daughter of George V

1987

Princess Anne (b. 1950), daughter of Elizabeth II

Descendants of Queen Victoria
THE HOUSE OF WINDSOR

King George V assumed by royal proclamation (17 July 1917) for his House and family, as well as for all descendants in the male line of Queen Victoria who are subjects of these realms, the name of Windsor.

KING GEORGE V

(George Frederick Ernest Albert), second son of King Edward VII born 3 June 1865 married 6 July 1893 HSH Princess Victoria Mary Augusta Louise Olga Pauline Claudine Agnes of Teck (Queen Mary born 26 May 1867 died 24 March 1953) succeeded to the throne 6 May 1910 died 20 January 1936. Issue

1. HRH PRINCE EDWARD Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David born 23 June 1894 succeeded to the throne as King Edward VIII, 20 January 1936 abdicated 11 December 1936 created Duke of Windsor 1937 married 3 June 1937 Mrs Wallis Simpson (Her Grace The Duchess of Windsor born 19 June 1896 died 24 April 1986) died 28 May 1972

2. HRH PRINCE ALBERT Frederick Arthur George born 14 December 1895 created Duke of York 1920 married 26 April 1923 Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, youngest daughter of the 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne (HM Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother born 4 August 1900 died 30 March 2002) succeeded to the throne as King George VI, 11 December 1936 died 6 February 1952. Issue

  1. HRH Princess Elizabeth Alexandra Mary succeeded to the throne as Queen Elizabeth II, 6 February 1952 (see Royal Family)

  2. HRH Princess Margaret Rose (later HRH The Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon) born 21 August 1930 married 6 May 1960 Anthony Charles Robert Armstrong-Jones, GCVO created Earl of Snowdon 1961 (1930–2017), marriage dissolved 1978, died 9 February 2002, having had issue (see Royal Family)

3. HRH PRINCESS (Victoria Alexandra Alice) MARY born 25 April 1897 created Princess Royal 1932 married 28 February 1922 Viscount Lascelles, later the 6th Earl of Harewood (1882–1947) died 28 March 1965. Issue:

  1. George Henry Hubert Lascelles, 7th Earl of Harewood, KBE born 7 February 1923 died 11 July 2011 married (1) 1949 Maria (Marion) Stein (marriage dissolved 1967) issue (a) David Henry George, 8th Earl of Harewood born 1950 (b) James Edward born 1953 (c) (Robert) Jeremy Hugh born 1955 (2) 1967 Patricia Tuckwell issue (d) Mark Hubert born 1964

  2. Gerald David Lascelles born 21 August 1924 died 27 February 1998 married (1) 1952 Angela Dowding (marriage dissolved 1978) issue (a) Henry Ulick born 1953 (2) 1978 Elizabeth Collingwood (Elizabeth Colvin) issue (b) Martin David born 1962

4. HRH PRINCE HENRY William Frederick Albert born 31 March 1900 created Duke of Gloucester, Earl of Ulster and Baron Culloden 1928 married 6 November 1935 Lady Alice Christabel Montagu-Douglas-Scott, daughter of the 7th Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry (HRH Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester born 25 December 1901 died 29 October 2004) died 10 June 1974. Issue

  1. HRH Prince William Henry Andrew Frederick born 18 December 1941 accidentally killed 28 August 1972

  2. HRH Prince Richard Alexander Walter George (HRH The Duke of Gloucester, see Royal Family)

5. HRH PRINCE GEORGE Edward Alexander Edmund born 20 December 1902 created Duke of Kent, Earl of St Andrews and Baron Downpatrick 1934 married 29 November 1934 HRH Princess Marina of Greece and Denmark (born 30 November 1906 died 27 August 1968) killed on active service 25 August 1942. Issue

  1. HRH Prince Edward George Nicholas Paul Patrick (HRH The Duke of Kent, see Royal Family)

  2. HRH Princess Alexandra Helen Elizabeth Olga Christabel (HRH Princess Alexandra, the Hon. Lady Ogilvy, see Royal Family)

  3. HRH Prince Michael George Charles Franklin (HRH Prince Michael of Kent, see Royal Family)

6. HRH PRINCE JOHN Charles Francis born 12 July 1905 died 18 January 1919

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