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Summary Article: Marmont, Auguste Frederic Louis Viesse de, duc de Ragusa
from The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia with Atlas and Weather Guide

French soldier. He was made a Marshal of France after his victory at Znaym (1809), and served in the Peninsular War 1811–12, until beaten by Wellington at Salamanca (22 July 1812). He supported Charles X in the Revolution of 1830 but was forced to go into exile with him, mostly in Vienna.

He was born in Chatillon-sur-Seine. He served as brigadier-general in Egypt, returned with Napoleon to France and supported him in the revolution of the 18th Brumaire. Having defended the Ragusan territory against the Russians and Montenegrins, he was made Duc de Ragusa. He joined the Grande Armée in 1809 the day before the battle of Wagram. He was governor of the Illyrian provinces 1809–10, and succeeded Massena in Spain in May 1811. After the French defeat at Albuera (16 May) he moved southward, forcing Wellington to give up his siege of Badajoz. In 1812 Wellington went on the offensive, captured Cuidad Rodrigo and Badajoz, and advanced into Leon. Marmont withdrew to await reinforcements. In July he attacked Wellington's positions and threatened his communications with Portugal. Marmont attempted but failed to cut his opponent's retreat. In 1813 he commanded a corps d'armée and fought at Lützen, Bautzen, and Dresden. It was not until further resistance was hopeless that he concluded a truce with Barclay de Tolly, after which Napoleon abdicated. After Napoleon returned from Elba he was forced to flee. On the outbreak of the revolution in 1830 he tried to reduce Paris to submission, and finally retreating with 6000 Swiss and a few battalions that had continued faithful to Charles X, conducted him across the frontier. From that time he lived mostly in Vienna. In 1852 he engaged in an effort for the fusion of the French Legitimists and Orleanists. His memoirs were published in 1857–58.

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