Port and administrative centre of Kingston upon Hull City unitary authority in northeast England, where the river Hull flows into the north side of the Humber estuary, 90 km/56 mi east of Leeds; population (2001) 243,600. Hull has been a flourishing port for 700 years, and there are 11 km/7 mi of modern docks located on the Humber estuary. Industries include fish processing, flour milling, and saw milling – Hull is the largest timber port in the UK. Ferries travel from Hull to Rotterdam, the Netherlands, and Zeebrugge, Belgium.
History The site of the present city was occupied at the end of the 12th century by Cistercian monks. Edward I acquired the settlement, then known as Wyke, in 1293, and its name was changed to Kingston upon Hull. In 1299 Hull received a charter making it a free borough, and it grew into a flourishing seaport. New quays were built, internal communications improved, and a ferry to the southern shore of the Humber established, and in 1322 the town was enclosed and fortified. Henry VI's charter of 1440 incorporated the town, and during the reign of Henry VIII new fortifications to protect the harbour were built. These fortifications were largely devised by Henry himself and instructions in his handwriting are still in existence. During the English Civil War the first forcible resistance to Charles I was the closing of the gates of the city against him in 1642, and the town sustained two royalist sieges. Throughout the 17th and 18th centuries the town continued to maintain its position as a thriving port and commercial centre, and between 1774 and 1829 three further docks were built. Hull was made a city in 1897. George V opened the largest dock in Hull, the King George, in 1914. During World War II the centre of Hull was severely damaged in bombing raids, and much reconstruction has since taken place.
Features Hull is home to several museums and galleries, including the Maritime Museum, housed in the old Town Docks offices; Wilberforce House (1660), the former home of English reformer William Wilberforce; Streetlife, a transport museum; and the Ferens Art Gallery (1927), which houses an eclectic collection dating from 16th-century Dutch masters to the present day. The old Grammar School has also been converted to a museum and houses collections dedicated to Victorian Britain and the history of Hull. The Holy Trinity Church dates from the 13th century, the largest by area of English parish churches; St Mary's the Virgin church dates from the early 15th century. The Humber Bridge is the world's longest single-span suspension bridge. The city is home to University of Hull (1954) and University of Humberside (1992, formerly Humberside Polytechnic). Several of the derelict docks have been converted into leisure and shopping complexes and a marina. In 1999 the city celebrated 700 years since its 1st Royal charter.
Industries food processing, vegetable oils, paint, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, caravans, and paper. The largest timber port in the UK, it also handles grain, oilseeds, and wool.
Kingston upon Hull City Council
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(officially Kingston upon Hull) City and unitary authority on the N bank of the Humber estuary, NE England. Britain's third largest port, it was...