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Definition: hydrazine (H2NNH2or N2H4) from Processing Water, Wastewater, Residuals, and Excreta for Health and Environmental Protection: An Encyclopedic Dictionary

A fuming, liquid amino acid compound used as an oxygen scavenger in boiler feedwater and cooling water, as a reducing agent for some metals, in the production of explosives, and as a rocket fuel.


Summary Article: hydrazine from The Columbia Encyclopedia

(hì'drəzēn´´), chemical compound, formula NH2NH2, m.p. 1.4 degrees Celsius, b.p. 113.5 degrees Celsius, specific gravity 1.011 at 15 degrees Celsius. It is very soluble in water and soluble in alcohol. At ordinary temperatures it is a colorless, fuming liquid that has an ammonialike odor, but when frozen it forms white crystals. Hydrazine is corrosive and a strong reducing agent, but it is a weaker base than ammonia. It reacts with water to form hydrazine hydrate, N2H4·H2O, a colorless liquid that boils at 120 degrees Celsius. Hydrazine can be prepared (usually as the hydrate) by reacting ammonia with chloramine, NH2Cl, in the presence of glue or gelatin. The glue or gelatin inhibits decomposition of the hydrazine. Ammonium chloride is a byproduct. The chloramine may be prepared by reacting ammonia with a hypochlorite or chlorine gas. Hydrazine is also prepared by reaction of sodium hypochlorite with urea in the presence of glue or gelatin. Hydrazine is dibasic and forms many salts, e.g., mono- and di-hydrochlorides, mono- and di-nitrates, and two sulfates. The major use of hydrazine is as a rocket fuel because it burns rapidly, producing a large amount of heat. Hydrazine and its derivatives are also used in the manufacture of algicides, fungicides, insecticides, and agricultural chemicals; in rubber curing and the manufacture of foam rubber and plastics; in soldering fluxes; and as a corrosion inhibitor in boiler feedwater. Isoniazid, a drug used in treatment of tuberculosis, is isonicotinic hydrazide.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, © Columbia University Press 2017

Related Credo Articles

Full text Article hydrazine
The Penguin Dictionary of Science

H2NNH2 A hydride of nitrogen containing two nitrogen atoms, which is found as a colourless liquid. Its formula is related to ammonia in the same way

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