Capital city of the southern central Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, on the River Musi; population (2001 est) 3,449,900. Products include carpets, silks, and metal inlay work. More recently industries such as textiles, pharmaceuticals, electrical machinery, cigarettes, and chemicals have become important. It was formerly the capital of the state of Hyderabad. Buildings include the Jama Masjid mosque and Golconda fort. It is an important educational and research centre, and is the site of Osmania University (1918) and the University of Hyderabad (1974).
The princely state of Hyderabad, which occupied the greater part of the Deccan, was by far the largest of India's princely states. In 1956 the state of Hyderabad was divided between Maharashtra, Mysore, and Andhra Pradesh.
Early history Hyderabad was the centre of Muslim power in central and southern India from the 15th to the 19th centuries. Founded in 1589 as the capital of the Golconda kingdom, it was subsequently ruled by a succession of Muslim Nizams from 1724. In 1591 the Char Minar (a structure consisting of four arches carrying four minarets), the Darulshifa (hospital), and the large Mecca Masjid (mosque) were built within the old walled city; this contrasts with the more open, regular plan of the original British military settlement of Secunderabad.
European involvement In the 18th century the French and the British supported rival claimants to the succession until the British finally concluded a treaty with the Nizam in 1766. The state came under British protection in 1799. During the Indian Mutiny the rulers of Hyderabad sided with the British, and were subsequently rewarded with additional territory. The Nizam opposed accession to India at independence, and declared Hyderabad an independent state; the resulting violence was ended only after the intervention of the Indian Army to take control in September 1948.
17 22N 78 26E One of the largest cities in India, the capital of Andhra Pradesh situated on the River Musi. Formerly the capital of the...
25 23N 68 24E A city in SE Pakistan, on the River Indus. A focal point of rail and road routes, it has light industries and several...