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Definition: hawk from Philip's Encyclopedia

Bird of prey of the family Accipitridae, which includes the true hawks, buzzards, eagles, harriers, kites, ospreys and vultures. They range in size from the tiny sparrow hawk to the harpy eagle. Hawks have short, hooked bills for tearing meat and strong claws for killing prey. Common coloration is red, brown or grey plumage with streaks on the wings. Length: 28-66 cm (11-26in). Order Falconiformes. See also falcon

Summary Article: hawk
From The Columbia Encyclopedia

name generally applied to the smaller members of the Accipitridae, a heterogeneous family of diurnal birds of prey, such as the eagle, the kite, and the Old World vulture. Hawks belong to the same order as the New World vulture, the osprey, and the secretary bird; they were formerly classified with the falcons but are not closely related genetically. Hawks have keen sight, sharply hooked bills, and powerful feet with curved talons. Strong and graceful in flight, they are distinguished from falcons by their broader, rounded wings.

Typical of the hunting hawks, or accipiters, is the goshawk found in northern temperate regions, which feeds on small mammals and on other birds, riding its prey to the ground. Other destructive American accipiters are the chicken, or Cooper's, hawk, Accipiter cooperi, and the small (robin-sized) sharp-shinned hawk, A. striatus, which is known to feed on at least 50 species of harmless or beneficial birds. The males of this group are usually smaller than the females. Buteos (called buzzards by the English) are a diverse and cosmopolitan group of medium to large hawks and eagles with shorter legs and tails and larger wings than the accipiters. They include beneficial hawks such as the American red-tailed, red-shouldered, broad-winged, rough-legged, and Swainson's hawks, which feed on harmful rodents and reptiles. Except for the harriers, or marsh hawks (owl-faced birds of open land and marshes), which are ground nesters, hawks build their nests of sticks and twigs in trees. All hawks regurgitate the indigestible portions of their prey as pellets. Included in the hawk family is the bateleur, a serpent eagle of Africa and Arabia which somersaults in its flight.

The name hawk is applied also to many falcons and the totally unrelated nighthawk (a goatsucker), certain members of the gull and jaeger families, and the hawk swallow, a European swift. True hawks are classified in the phylum Chordata, subphylum Vertebrata, class Aves, order Accipitriformes, family Accipitridae.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, © Columbia University Press 2018

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Philip's Encyclopedia

Bird of prey of the family Accipitridae, which includes the true hawks, buzzards , eagles , harriers , kites , ospreys and vultures ....

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