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Definition: hara-kiri from The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia with Atlas and Weather Guide

Ritual suicide of the Japanese samurai (military caste) since the 12th century. Today it is illegal. It was carried out to avoid dishonour or to demonstrate sincerity, either voluntarily or on the order of a feudal lord. The correct Japanese term is seppuku, and, traditionally, the ritual involved cutting open one's stomach with a dagger. It was then proper to have one's head struck off by another samurai's sword.

Summary Article: hara-kiri
From The Columbia Encyclopedia

(här'Ә-kēr'ē, hăr'Ә–) [Jap.,=belly-cutting], the traditional Japanese form of honorable suicide, also known by its Chinese equivalent, seppuku. It was practiced by the Japanese feudal warrior class in order to avoid falling into enemy hands. Around 1500, it became a privileged alternative to execution, granted to daimyo and samurai guilty of disloyalty to the emperor. The condemned man received a jeweled dagger from the emperor. He selected as his second a faithful friend, received official witnesses, and plunged the dagger into the left side of his abdomen, drew it across to the right, and made a slight cut upward; his second then beheaded him with one stroke of a sword, and the dagger was returned to the emperor. Around 1700, it became permissible to go through a semblance of disembowelment prior to beheading. Voluntary hara-kiri was resorted to after a private misfortune, out of loyalty to a dead master, or to protest the conduct of a living superior.

Obligatory hara-kiri was abolished in 1868, but its voluntary form has persisted. It was performed by 40 military men in 1895 as a protest against the return of conquered territory, the Liaotung peninsula, to China; by General Nogi on the death of Emperor Meiji in 1912; and by numerous soldiers as an alternative to surrender in World War II. Hara-kiri was much discussed in recent years in connection with the death, in 1970, of Mishima, the well-known novelist and rightist political leader.

See bushido, kamikaze, suicide.

  • For detailed accounts of hara-kiri, see Redesdale, A. B. F. , Tales of Old Japan (1919).
The Columbia Encyclopedia, © Columbia University Press 2018

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