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Summary Article: grammar
From The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia with Atlas and Weather Guide

The rules for combining words into phrases, clauses, sentences, and paragraphs. The standardizing impact of print has meant that spoken or colloquial language is often perceived as less grammatical than written language, but all forms of a language, standard or otherwise, have their own grammatical systems. People often acquire several overlapping grammatical systems within one language; for example, a formal system for writing and standard communication and a less formal system for everyday and peer-group communication.

Originally ‘grammar’ was an analytical approach to writing, intended to improve the understanding and the skills of scribes, philosophers, and writers. When compared with Latin, English has been widely regarded as having a simpler grammar; it would be truer, however, to say that English and Latin have different grammars, each complex in its own way. In linguistics (the contemporary study of language) grammar, or syntax, refers to the arrangement of the elements in a language for the purposes of acceptable communication in speech, writing, and print.

Not even the most comprehensive grammar book (or grammar) of a language like English, French, Arabic, or Japanese completely covers or fixes the implicit grammatical system that people use in their daily lives. The rules and tendencies of natural grammar operate largely in nonconscious ways but can, for many social and professional purposes, be studied and developed for conscious as well as inherent skills. See also parts of speech. In addition to the parts of speech, other terms are used to assist with describing the way sentences are constructed for the purpose of sentence analysis.

Recent theories of the way language functions include phrase structure grammar, transformational grammar, and case grammar.


Strategies for those with reading and writing difficulties

Adjectives and how to use them

Adverbs and how to use them

Syllables and how they can be identified



Bonjour de France


Elements of Style

Fast and Friendly French for Fun

French Experience: Work

French Language Course

French Revision

Gender Hints – German

German Adjective Endings

German Internet Chronik

German Travel Phrases


Language Learning Resources

Languages Online: German




Quia: French Activities

Quia: German

Subject–Verb Agreement



What Is An Adjective?

Wortschatz Übungen – Vocabulary Exercises

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