Province of the east Netherlands, bounded on the southeast by Germany, on the southwest by the River Maas, and on the northwest by the Ijsselmeer; area 5,020 sq km/1,938 sq mi; population (2003 est) 1,968,000. The capital is Arnhem; other main cities are Apeldoorn, Nijmegen, and Ede. Textiles, electrical goods, and paper are produced; agriculture is based on livestock and dairying, wheat, fruit, flowers, and vegetables.
History In the Middle Ages Gelderland was divided into Upper Gelderland (Roermond in North Limburg) and Lower Gelderland (Nijmegen, Arnhem, Zutphen). These territories were inherited by Charles V of Spain in 1506, but when the revolt against Spanish rule reached a climax in 1579, Lower Gelderland joined the United Provinces of the Netherlands. Gelderland was part of the former duchy of Gelderland, which was a Habsburg possession but was divided in 1715 between Prussia and the Netherlands.
Features Veluwe, a hilly heathland and recreational area in the northwest (includes the national parks of De Hoge Veluwe and De Veluwezoom), is a favourite holiday resort.
Physical The region consists of low hills (formed as moraine features of the Ice Age, maximum height about 100 m/328 ft) with heaths and woodlands; there are fertile lowlands crossed by the rivers Rhine, IJssel, Meuse, and Waal.