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Definition: Dundee from Philip's Encyclopedia

City on the N shore of the Firth of Tay, Tayside, E Scotland. A centre of the Reformation in Scotland, Dundee is an important port and has a university (founded 1881). Industries: textiles, confectionery, engineering. Pop. (2001) 145,460.

Summary Article: Dundee
From The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia with Atlas and Weather Guide

City and administrative centre of Dundee City unitary authority, in eastern Scotland, on the north side of the firth of Tay; 96 km/60 mi northeast of Edinburgh; population (2001) 154,700. Dundee developed around the jute, jam, and journalism industries in the 19th century. In the 20th century, Dundee has diversified into biomedical research, oil-industry support, and high-technology manufacturing.

History Dundee first started to flourish through trade with Flanders and the Baltic ports, and the first harbour was built in the 11th century. Dundee was granted its first charter at the end of the 12th century, making it a royal burgh. A long period of prosperity based on the flax, wool, and linen industries came to an end in the 17th century: the town was sacked in 1645 by the Marquis of Montrose, and destroyed in 1651 by the Cromwellian army, under General Monck. It was more than a century before growth and prosperity returned. By the late 18th century, Dundee was Europe's most important producer of linen, especially sailcloth. In the 1830s the town started to cultivate jute, initially to supplement linen, later becoming a world supplier, earning the city the unofficial title ‘Juteopolis’. Jute is used for making sacks and sacking, upholstery, and webbing. Dundee also had a large whaling industry, and whale oil was used to treat the jute. In 1878 the Tay Rail Bridge, the world's longest rail bridge, was opened, but it collapsed the following year, killing 75 train passengers and crew. It was rebuilt 1883–88. Queen Victoria conferred city status on Dundee in 1892. In 1966 the Tay Road Bridge, the longest river crossing of any road bridge, was opened.

Features The ship Discovery, used by Robert Falcon Scott on his expedition to the Antarctic 1901–04, was built in Dundee. The ship is moored to the west of the Tay Road Bridge, and is a tourist attraction. At Broughty Ferry, 5 km/3 mi to the east of Dundee, is a 15th-century castle with a museum documenting Dundee's whaling industry. Verdant Works, a textile museum based on a restored 19th-century jute mill, is a working mill that chronicles the importance of jute to the city. Notable buildings include the Albert Institute (1867) and the Caird Hall (1914–22). There are two universities in the city: the University of Dundee, founded in 1967 but developed from Queen's College (1881), and the University of Abertay (1994; formerly Dundee Institute of Technology, founded in 1881). Dundee has a large student population, which contributes significantly to the local economy. Dundee and Dundee United, the city's two Scottish League football teams, play their respective home games only 91 m/29 ft away from each other on the same road, the closest two football grounds in the UK.

Dundee is the home of the Dandy and Beano comics and the Sunday Post. Dundee Cake, a rich fruit cake, was made with by-products of marmalade manufacturing which began in the 16th century using seville oranges.

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