government by an absolute ruler unchecked by effective constitutional limits to his power. In Greek usage, a despot was ruler of a household and master of its slaves. The title was applied to gods and, by derivation, to the quasi-divine rulers of the Middle East. In the Byzantine Empire, despot was a title of honor of the emperors and their relatives and of vassal princes of the tributary states and dignitaries of the Eastern Church. The Ottoman Empire perpetuated the term as applied to church officials and territorial princes. The 18th-century doctrine of the Enlightenment influenced such absolutist rulers as Frederick the Great of Prussia, Catherine II of Russia, and Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II toward a rule of beneficent intent known as benevolent despotism. However, despot is now a term of opprobrium.
- See Krieger, L., An Essay on the Theory of Enlightened Despotism (1975);.
- Oriental Despotism: A Comparative Study of Total Power (1981);. ,
- The Theory of Despotism in Germany (1988). ,
DESPOTISM CONNOTES autocracy, the absolute rule of one or a select group and exercise of power without imposed limits. The word is closely...
The rule of the most influential rulers of the Enlightenment has been commonly described as ‘enlightened despotism’. This is paradoxical, as despotis
/despətiz(ə)m/ noun 1 rule by a despot; absolutism If despotism failed for want of a capable benevolent despot, what chance has...