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Definition: Desai, Morarji Ranchhodji from The Columbia Encyclopedia

(môrär'jē ränchō'jē dĕsī'), 1896–1995, Indian political leader. He joined the government in 1956, becoming minister of finance (1958–63). He returned to government in 1967 as deputy prime minister and minister of finance, but in 1969 was maneuvered from office by Indira Gandhi and became leader of the conservative opposition. Leading an opposition coalition, he prevailed in the 1977 elections, ending Gandhi's emergency rule. He served as prime minister until 1979, when the coalition broke apart.

Summary Article: Desai, Morarji Ranchhodji
from The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia with Atlas and Weather Guide

Indian politician. An early follower of Mahatma Gandhi, he was independent India's first non-Congress Party prime minister 1977–79, as leader of the Janata party, after toppling Indira Gandhi. Party infighting led to his resignation of both the premiership and the party leadership.

Born in Gujarat, western India, Desai's early career was as a civil servant working for the British Raj. Strongly influenced by Mahatma Gandhi, Desai resigned from the civil service in 1930 and committed his life to the Indian freedom movement. Although jailed for his participation in the Civil Disobedience Campaign, he was elected to the Bombay legislature in 1935 and became the state's chief minister in 1951. A disciplined teetotaller, vegetarian and, from the age of 32, celibate, he imposed prohibition in the state.

Jawaharlal Nehru brought Desai into the federal administration of independent India in 1956 and appointed him finance minister in 1958. However, his relations with Nehru's daughter Indira Gandhi, who became prime minister in 1966, were strained – Desai having previously derided her as a ‘mere schoolgirl’. He resigned in 1969 in opposition to plans to nationalize India's banks. His departure caused a serious split in the ruling Congress Party; Desai went on to form the Janata Party, which gained power after the state of emergency 1975–77 imposed by Indira Gandhi when she was found guilty of electoral malpractice.

At the age of 81, Desai became the world's oldest prime minister and, as a true Gandhian, sought to encourage the revival of cottage industries, and delayed the manufacture of India's nuclear bomb. However, the fractious Janata coalition stayed together for only two years. Desai's frank, difficult, obdurate, and eccentric personality contributed to his demise as premier in July 1979, when he retired from politics. He remained in remarkable health and ascribed his longevity to his ascetic regimen and, in particular, the health-giving powers of his remarkable twice daily ritual of drinking his own urine, which he described as ‘the water of life’.

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