or Columbian Biological Exchange, represents the scientific idea that plants, animals, and other life forms crossed between Europe and the Americas. This occurred when explorers, colonists, and others traveled between continents over vast oceans that had up to this time served as barriers to exchange. Colonists brought Old World animals like livestock, cats, horses, and rats. They brought plants including bananas, coffee, citrus trees, sugarcane, and wheat. They also brought viruses that cause diseases like smallpox, measles, and scarlet fever.
They took many plants and animals to the Old World, too. Those include turkeys, guinea pigs, llamas, cashews, peanuts, potatoes, pumpkins, tobacco, tomatoes, and rubber. These exchanges had sweeping effects on native peoples in the New World, changing their lives in many ways.
See also: horses and smallpox
In 1750, the process referred to by some scholars as the Columbian Exchange had been under way for at least one quarter of a millennium. Named after
For thousands of years, humans populating the Western Hemisphere and the Eastern Hemisphere had had no contact. The European Age of Discovery put an
Unlike other world regions in the emerging post-1500s economic world system, Southeast Asia did not immediately absorb plants and animals from the A