1Celiac disease is an immune disorder in which people cannot tolerate gluten because it damages the inner lining of their small intestine and prevents it from absorbing nutrients. The small intestine is the tubeshaped organ between the stomach and large intestine. Gluten is a protein found in wheat, rye, and barley and occasionally in some products such as vitamin and nutrient supplements, lip balms, and certain medications.
The immune system is the body's natural defense system and normally protects the body from infection. However, when a person has celiac disease, gluten causes the immune system to react in a way that can cause intestinal inflammation—irritation or swelling—and long-lasting damage.
When people with celiac disease eat foods or use products containing gluten, their immune system responds by damaging or destroying villi—the tiny, fingerlike projections on the inner lining of the small intestine. Villi normally absorb nutrients from food and pass the nutrients through the walls of the small intestine and into the bloodstream. Without healthy villi, people can become malnourished, no matter how much food they eat.
Researchers do not know the exact cause of celiac disease. Celiac disease sometimes runs in families. In 50 percent of people who have celiac disease, a family member, when screened, also has the disease.
A person's chances of developing celiac disease increase when his or her genes—traits passed from parent to child—have variants, or changes. In celiac disease, certain gene variants and other factors, such as a person's exposure to things in his or her environment, can lead to celiac disease.
For most people, eating something with gluten is harmless. For others, an exposure to gluten can cause, or trigger, celiac disease to become active. Sometimes surgery, pregnancy, childbirth, a viral infection, or severe emotional stress can also trigger celiac disease symptoms.
As many as one in 141 Americans has celiac disease, although most remain undiagnosed. Celiac disease affects children and adults in all parts of the world and is more common in Caucasians and females.
Celiac disease is also more common among people with certain genetic diseases, including Down syndrome and Turner syndrome—a condition that affects girls’ development.
A person may experience digestive signs and symptoms, or symptoms in other parts of the body. Digestive signs and symptoms are more common in children and can include
pale, foul-smelling, or fatty stool
Being unable to absorb nutrients during the years when nutrition is critical to a child's normal growth and development can lead to other health problems, such as
failure to thrive in infants
slowed growth and short stature
irritability or change in mood
dental enamel defects of permanent teeth
Adults are less likely to have digestive signs and symptoms and may instead have one or more of the following:
bone or joint pain
canker sores inside the mouth
depression or anxiety
dermatitis herpetiformis, an itchy, blistering skin rash
fatigue, or feeling tired
infertility or recurrent miscarriage
missed menstrual periods
tingling numbness in the hands and feet
weak and brittle bones, or osteoporosis
Intestinal inflammation can cause other symptoms, such as
feeling tired for long periods of time
abdominal pain and bloating
blockages in the intestine
Celiac disease can produce an autoimmune reaction, or a self-directed immune reaction, in which a person's immune system attacks healthy cells in the body. This reaction can spread outside of the gastrointestinal tract to affect other areas of the body, including the
Recognizing celiac disease can be difficult because some of its symptoms are similar to those of other diseases and conditions. Celiac disease can be confused with
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
iron-deficiency anemia caused by menstrual blood loss
inflammatory bowel disease
chronic fatigue syndrome
As a result, celiac disease has long been underdiagnosed or mis-diagnosed. As health care providers become more aware of the many varied symptoms of the disease and reliable blood tests become more available, diagnosis rates are increasing, particularly for adults.
Signs and symptoms of celiac disease vary from person to person because of numerous factors, including
the length of time a person was breastfed as an infant; some studies have shown that the longer an infant was breastfed, the later the symptoms of celiac disease appear
the age a person started eating gluten
the amount of gluten a person eats
age—symptoms can vary between young children and adults
the degree of damage to the small intestine
Some people with celiac disease have no signs or symptoms; however, they can still develop complications of the disease over time. Long-term complications include
People with celiac disease may also have autoimmune diseases, including
type 1 diabetes
autoimmune thyroid disease
autoimmune liver disease
Addison's disease, a condition in which the immune system damages the glands that produce critical hormones
Sjögren's syndrome, a condition in which the immune system destroys the glands that produce tears and saliva
A health care provider diagnoses celiac disease with
a medical and family history
a physical exam
an intestinal biopsy
a skin biopsy
Taking a medical and family history may help a health care provider diagnose celiac disease. He or she will ask the patient or caregiver to provide a medical and family history, specifically if anyone in the patient's family has a history of celiac disease.
A physical exam may help diagnose celiac disease. During a physical exam, a health care provider usually
examines the patient's body for malnutrition or a rash
uses a stethoscope to listen to sounds within the abdomen
taps on the patient's abdomen checking for bloating and pain
A blood test involves drawing blood at a health care provider's office or a commercial facility and sending the sample to a lab for analysis. A blood test can show the presence of antibodies that are common in celiac disease.
If blood test results are negative and a health care provider still suspects celiac disease, he or she may order additional blood tests, which can affect test results.
Before the blood tests, patients should continue to eat a diet that includes foods with gluten, such as breads and pastas. If a patient stops eating foods with gluten before being tested, the results may be negative for celiac disease even if the disease is present.
If blood tests suggest that a patient has celiac disease, a health care provider will perform a biopsy of the patient's small intestine to confirm the diagnosis. A biopsy is a procedure that involves taking a piece of tissue for examination with a microscope. A health care provider performs the biopsy in an outpatient center or a hospital. He or she will give the patient light sedation and a local anesthetic. Some patients may receive general anesthesia.
During the biopsy, a health care provider removes tiny pieces of tissue from the patient's small intestine using an endoscope—a small, flexible camera with a light. The health care provider carefully feeds the endo-scope down the patient's esophagus and into the stomach and small intestine. A small camera mounted on the endoscope transmits a video image to a monitor, allowing close examination of the intestinal lining. The health care provider then takes the samples using tiny tools that he or she passes through the endoscope. A pathologist—a doctor who specializes in examining tissues to diagnose diseases—examines the tissue in a lab. The test can show damage to the villi in the small intestine.
When a health care provider suspects that a patient has dermatitis herpetiformis, he or she will perform a skin biopsy. A skin biopsy is a procedure that involves removing tiny pieces of skin tissue for examination with a microscope. A health care provider performs the biopsy in an outpatient center or a hospital. The patient receives a local anesthetic; however, in some cases, the patient will require general anesthesia.
A pathologist examines the skin tissue in a lab and checks the tissue for antibodies that are common in celiac disease. If the skin tissue tests positive for the antibodies, a health care provider will perform blood tests to confirm celiac disease. If the skin biopsy and blood tests both suggest celiac disease, the patient may not need an intestinal biopsy for diagnosis.
Health care providers in the United States do not routinely screen patients for celiac disease. However, since celiac disease sometimes runs in families, blood relatives of people with celiac disease should talk with their health care provider about their chances of getting the disease. Some researchers recommend the routine testing of all family members, such as parents and siblings, for celiac disease. However, routine genetic testing for celiac disease is not usually helpful when diagnosing the disease.
Most people with celiac disease have a significant improvement in symptoms when they follow a gluten-free diet. Health care providers typically refer people to a dietitian who specializes in treating people with the disease. The dietitian will teach the person to avoid gluten while following a healthy and nutritious diet. The dietitian will give the person instructions for how to
read food and product labels and identify ingredients that contain gluten
make healthy choices about the types of foods to eat
design everyday meal plans
For most people, following a gluten-free diet will stop symptoms, heal existing intestinal damage, and prevent further damage. Symptoms may improve within days to weeks of starting the diet. The small intestine usually heals in 3 to 6 months in children. Complete healing can take several years in adults. Once the intestine heals, the villi will absorb nutrients from food into the bloodstream normally.
Some people with celiac disease show no improvement after starting a gluten-free diet. The most common reason for poor response to dietary changes is that people are still consuming small amounts of gluten, which can damage the small intestine—even in people without symptoms. Most people start responding to the gluten-free diet once they find and eliminate hidden sources of gluten from their diet. Hidden sources of gluten include additives made with wheat, such as
modified food starch
Some people who continue to have symptoms even after changing their diet may have other conditions or disorders that are more common in people with celiac disease. These conditions may include
small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, which happens when too many bacteria grow in the small intestine
pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, in which the pancreas does not produce enough digestive juice
microscopic colitis, an inflammation of the colon that a health care provider can see only with a microscope
lactose intolerance, a condition in which people have symptoms after consuming milk or milk products
other food intolerances, which may occur because of continued damage to the intestine
In some cases, people continue to have difficulty absorbing nutrients despite following a strict gluten-free diet. People with this condition, known as refractory celiac disease, have severely damaged intestines that cannot heal. Their intestines are not absorbing enough nutrients, so they may need to receive nutrients intravenously. Researchers continue to evaluate medications to treat refractory celiac disease.
Depending on a person's age at diagnosis, some complications of celiac disease will not improve, such as short stature and dental enamel defects.
For people with dermatitis herpetiformis, skin symptoms generally respond to a gluten-free diet and may recur if a person adds gluten back into his or her diet. Medications such as dapsone can control the rash's symptoms. Dapsone does not treat intestinal symptoms or damage, so people with dermatitis herpetiformis should maintain a gluten-free diet, even if they don't have digestive symptoms. Even when a person follows a gluten-free diet, the skin lesions from dermatitis herpetiformis may take months or even years to fully heal and often recur over the years.
Eating, diet, and nutrition play a significant role in treating celiac disease. People with the disease should maintain a gluten-free diet by avoiding products that contain gluten. In other words, a person with celiac disease should not eat most grains, pasta, and cereal, and many processed foods.
People with celiac disease can eat a wellbalanced diet with a variety of foods. They can use potato, rice, soy, amaranth, quinoa, buckwheat, or bean flour instead of wheat flour. They can buy gluten-free bread, pasta, and other products from stores, or order products from special food companies. Meanwhile, ‘plain’—meaning no additives or seasonings—meat, fish, rice, fruits, and vegetables do not contain gluten, so people with celiac disease can eat these foods.
In the past, health care providers and dietitians advised people with celiac disease to avoid eating oats. Evidence suggests that most people with the disease can safely eat small amounts of oats, as long as the oats are not contaminated with wheat gluten during processing. People with celiac disease should talk with their health care team when deciding whether to include oats in their diet.
Eating out and shopping can be a challenge. Newly diagnosed people and their families may find support groups helpful as they adjust to a new approach to eating. People with celiac disease should
read food labels—especially canned, frozen, and processed foods—for ingredients that contain gluten
avoid ingredients such as hydrolyzed vegetable protein, also called lecithin or soy lecithin
ask restaurant servers and chefs about ingredients and food preparation inquire whether a gluten-free menu is available
ask a dinner or party host about glutenfree options before attending a social gathering
Foods that are packaged as gluten-free tend to cost more than the same foods containing gluten. People following a gluten-free diet may find that naturally gluten-free foods are less expensive. With practice, looking for gluten can become second nature.
The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics has published recommendations for a glutenfree diet. The following chart illustrates these recommendations. This list is not complete, so people with celiac disease should discuss gluten-free food choices with a dietitian or health care professional who specializes in celiac disease. People with celiac disease should always read food ingredient lists carefully to make sure the food does not contain gluten.
Adapted from: Thompson T. Celiac Disease Nutrition Guide. 3rd ed. Chicago: Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics; 2014.
Foods and Ingredients That Contain Gluten
barley rye triticale (a cross between wheat and rye) wheat, including
brewer's yeast dextrin malt (unless a gluten-free source is named, such as corn malt) modified food starch oats (not labeled gluten-free) starch
Other Wheat Products That Contain Gluten
bromated flour durum flour enriched flour farina
graham flourgraham flour phosphated flour plain flour
self-rising flour semolina white flour
Processed Foods That May Contain Wheat, Barley, or Rye*
bouillon cubes brown rice syrup candy chewing gum chips/potato chips cold cuts, hot dogs, salami, sausage
communion wafers french fries gravies imitation fish matzo and matzo meal rice mixes
sauces seasoned tortilla chips self-basting turkey soups soy sauce vegetables in sauce
*Most of these foods can be found gluten-free. When in doubt, check with the food
Food Products and Ingredients Made from Barley*
other fermented beverages
*People should only consume these foods if they are labeled gluten-free—such
as sorghum-based beer—or they list a grain source other than barley, wheat, or
rye—such as corn malt.
Foods That Do Not Contain Gluten
oats (labeled gluten-free)
tef (or teff)
Text in this chapter is excerpted from “Celiac Disease” National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), September 2014.
Historical Perspective Celiac disease has been recognized for centuries (Dowd and Walker-Smith 1974) by physicians aware of its major symptoms...
Definition Celiac disease—also known as sprue, celiac sprue, non-tropical sprue, and gluten-sensitive enteropathy—is a lifelong autoimmune diseas
Prevalence Common worldwide disorder; affects about 1 in 100 people worldwide Other Names celiac sprue; gluten enteropathy; gluten intolerance; non-