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Summary Article: Black, Clementina Maria from Chambers Biographical Dictionary

1853-1922

English suffragist, trade unionist and novelist

Born in Brighton, East Sussex, she was educated at home. On her mother's death she moved to London, where she conducted research for her novels and lectured on 18th-century literature. After serving as secretary of the Women's Provident and Protective League, she set up the more militant Women's Trade Union Association (1889). This merged with the Women's Industrial Council (1897) and she became its president, playing an important part in collecting data on women's work and campaigning against sweated industries. Her publications include Sweated Industry and the Minimum Wage (1907), A Case for Trade Boards (1909) and her best-known book, Married Women's Work (1915), as well as a number of novels. She was the sister of Constance Garnett (1862-1946), who was a distinguished translator of Russian literature and the wife of Edward Garnett.

© Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd 2011

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