The importance of Baptism as a rite of passage for entrants to the Christian church is such that architectural provision has been made for it since at least the first half of the third century CE, when, in Dura-Europos on the Euphrates River, a canopied bath-like structure was built in a house that was converted for use as a place of Christian worship. Later, separate buildings made for the ceremony of baptism are circular, square, or (most often) octagonal domed structures covering a font—usually a pool recessed into the center of the floor, fed either by a spring or by water piped from a cistern; there is usually an entrance chamber, or narthex, to one side. Baptisteries of this type were built alongside churches across the empire in the fifth and sixth centuries: examples include the baptisteries of St. John Lateran, Rome (440), Qal'at Sem'an (after 459), and Hagia Sophia in Constantinople (532), the latter made into an Ottoman tomb in the seventeenth century. Baptisteries could be elaborately decorated: the late fourth-/early fifth-century example at stobi in Macedonia has a mosaic floor decoration of paired peacocks and deer flanking fountains and wall-paintings depicting New Testament episodes. The (Orthodox) Baptistery of Neon in Ravenna (late fifth century) has a mosaic decoration in its dome consisting of a medallion with John baptizing Jesus in the Jordan River at the summit, with a procession of apostles led by peter and paul below, and in a third register, a frieze of fictive architecture. On the walls below there is a stucco decoration of relief figures in niches. An iconographically near-identical dome mosaic is present in the early sixth century Arian Baptistery in Ravenna.
Architecture, Byzantine; Church architecture.
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