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Definition: Asturias from Philip's Encyclopedia

Region in NW Spain, bordering the Bay of Biscay and traversed by the Cantabrian Mountains. The capital is Oviedo. Asturias was named by the Iberians in the 2nd century bc and is famous for its cider. Its coal mines are the richest in Spain. Industries: coal, manganese, mining, steel and nonferrous metal production, fishing, fruit. Pop. (2001) 1,062,998.

Summary Article: Asturias
From The Columbia Encyclopedia

(ästō'ryäs), autonomous region (1990 pop. 1,128,372) and former kingdom, NW Spain, S of the Bay of Biscay and E of Galicia, and coextensive with Oviedo prov. It was established as an autonomous region in 1981. Drained by numerous swift rivers, it is crossed by the well-forested Cantabrian Mts. High rainfall and cool temperatures have favored a large dairy industry. Along the coast, apple orchards are the source of a world-famous cider, and corn is a major crop. Oviedo is the capital. Gijón is the chief port, and fishing is a major occupation. Coal and iron mining and steel manufacturing, however, were until recently the most important economic sectors, but both have suffered declines, with mining in an especially sharp decline. Tourism is increasing in importance.

The name Asturias is derived from an Iberian people that lived there before the Roman conquest (2d cent. B.C.). When the Moors overran the peninsula, Christian nobles fled into the Asturian mountains. They created the first Christian kingdom of Spain (see Pelayo) and defended themselves at the battle of Covadonga. From Asturias came the Christian reconquest of Spain, as the successors of King Alfonso I extended their control over Asturias, Galicia, León, and parts of Castile, Navarre, and Vizcaya. Astorga was one of the chief cities of the Asturian kingdom in the 9th cent.

In the 10th cent. the capital was moved from Oviedo to León, and the kingdom of Asturias became the kingdom of Asturias and León, which three centuries later was united with the kingdom of Castile. In 1388, John I of León and Castile made his son prince of the Asturias—the title borne from that time on by the heir to the throne. The Asturians are noted for their stubborn courage and independence—traits shown in the warfare against Napoleon, in various uprisings against the Spanish government, in the civil war of 1936–39, and in the general strike of 1962.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, © Columbia University Press 2018

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