Capital of Adana (Seyhan) province, southern Turkey, about 50 km/31 mi north of the Mediterranean Sea, near the Taurus Mountains; population (2003 est) 1,219,900. Adana is a commercial centre and Turkey's fourth-largest city. It is located in the middle of the Çurukova (Cilician) plain, in the most fertile area of the country, where cotton, grains, and fruits are grown. Manufacturing includes cotton textiles, processed food, tobacco, machinery, and cement.
Adana is said to have been founded by Adanus, son of Kronus, the god of weather. It was probably founded by the Hittites, and was colonized by the Romans in 66 BC. In the 16th century the city passed to the Ottoman Turks. Adana was invaded by French forces in 1918, but achieved independence in January 1922.
The River Seyhan is spanned at Adana by the 274 m/900 ft-long Tasköprü (stone bridge), which was built in Roman times by the Emperor Hadrian, and repaired by Justinian. Only 14 of the bridge's original 21 arches remain standing. Other sites of interest include the 16th-century Ulu Camii (great mosque), Eski Mosque, Hasan Aga Mosque, and the Saat Kulessi clock tower (1882). The city's principal museums include the Archaeological Museum, which houses Hittite and Roman remains; the Museum of Ethnography (1983), which is housed in a 19th-century church; and the Atatürk Culture Museum. The Seyhan Dam and Lake lie to the north of the city. Also to the north is Karatepe, a Hittite archaeological site. The University of Çukurova (1969) is located here.
An earthquake, measuring 6.3 on the Richter scale, struck in the province in June 1998, killing more than 110 people and injuring over 1,000 others.