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Definition: Moon from The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia with Atlas and Weather Guide

Natural satellite of Earth, 3,476 km/2,160 mi in diameter, with a mass 0.012 (approximately one-eightieth) that of Earth.

Its surface gravity is only 0.16 (one-sixth) that of Earth. Its average distance from Earth is 384,400 km/238,855 mi, and it orbits in a west-to-east direction every 27.32 days (the sidereal month). It spins on its axis with one side permanently turned towards Earth. The Moon has no atmosphere and was thought to have no water until ice was discovered on its surface in 1998.

Phases The Moon is illuminated by sunlight, and goes through a cycle of phases of shadow, waxing from new (dark) via first quarter (half Moon) to full, and waning back again to new every 29.53 days (the synodic month, also known as a lunation). On its sunlit side, temperatures reach 110°C/230°F, but during the two-week lunar night the surface temperature drops to −170°C/−274°F.

Origins The origin of the Moon is still open to debate. Scientists suggest the following theories: that it split from the Earth; that it was a separate body captured by Earth's gravity; that it formed in orbit around Earth; or – the theory most widely favoured currently – that it was formed from debris thrown off when a body the size of Mars struck Earth.

Research 70% of the far side of the Moon was photographed from the Soviet Lunik 3 in October 1959. Much of our information about the Moon has been derived from this and other photographs and measurements taken by US and Soviet Moon probes, from geological samples brought back by US Apollo astronauts and by Soviet Luna probes, and from experiments set up by US astronauts 1969–72. The US probe Lunar Prospector, launched in January 1998, examined the composition of the lunar crust, recorded gamma rays, and mapped the lunar magnetic field. It also discovered the ice on the Moon in March 1998.

During the 21st century, probes have been sent to the Moon by the European Space Agency, China, Japan, India, and the USA. NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter is mapping the Moon from its polar orbit. A pair of GRAIL spacecraft began orbiting the Moon in tandem at the beginning of 2012, travelling just 50 km/30 mi high and about 200 km/120 mi apart. For nearly a year, before being deliberately crashed on the Moon, they measured their varying spacing in order to produce extraordinarily detailed maps of the Moon's gravitational field from which the satellite's inner structure can be deduced.

A joint Indian-Russian mission is planned to include an orbiter, a lander, and a rover, and is due to be launched in 2016. In the longer term, Russia plans an uncrewed lunar ‘colony’, with its own power station, laboratory, long-range rover, and associated satellite in orbit. The Google corporation is offering a prize of $30 million for any privately funded team that can send a rover to the Moon that travels more than 500 m/1,640 ft across the surface. Twenty-two teams registered for the contest and they have until 2015 to accomplish the feat.

In January 2004 US president George W Bush announced a plan to put astronauts back on the Moon by 2020. However, the successor administration of President Barack Obama cancelled the plan, turning its attention to crewed trips to Mars and the asteroids instead. Japan and India have announced their intention to send crewed missions to the Moon.

Composition The Moon is rocky, with a surface heavily scarred by meteorite impacts that have formed craters up to 240 km/150 mi across. Seismic observations indicate that the Moon's surface extends downwards for tens of kilometres; below this crust is a solid mantle about 1,100 km/688 mi thick, and below that a silicate core, part of which may be molten. Rocks brought back by astronauts show that the Moon is 4.6 billion years old, the same age as Earth. It is made up of the same chemical elements as Earth, but in different proportions, and differs from Earth in that most of the Moon's surface features were formed within the first billion years of its history when it was hit repeatedly by meteorites.

The youngest craters are surrounded by bright rays of ejected rock. The largest scars have been filled by dark lava to produce the lowland plains called seas, or maria (plural of mare). These dark patches form the so-called ‘man-in-the-Moon’ pattern. Inside some craters that are permanently in shadow is up to 300 million tonnes/330 million tons of ice existing as a thin layer of crystals.

One of the Moon's easiest features to observe is the crater Plato, which is about 100 km/62 mi in diameter and 2,700 m/8,860 ft deep, and at times is visible with the naked eye.

The US lunar probe Clementine discovered an enormous crater on the far side of the Moon in 1994. The South Pole-Aitken crater is 2,500 km/1,563 mi across and 13 km/8 mi deep, making it the largest known crater in the Solar System.

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Summary Article: moon from The Columbia Encyclopedia
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Image from: Moon When it is at its brightest, at full moon,... in Astronomy Encyclopedia

natural satellite of a planet (see satellite, natural) or dwarf planet, in particular, the single natural satellite of the earth.

The Earth-Moon System

The moon is the earth's nearest neighbor in space. In addition to its proximity, the moon is also exceptional in that it is quite massive compared to the earth itself, the ratio of their masses being far larger than the similar ratios of other natural satellites to the planets they orbit (though that of Charon and the dwarf planet Pluto exceeds that of the moon and earth). For this reason, the earth-moon system is sometimes considered a double planet. It is the center of the earth-moon system, rather than the center of the earth itself, that describes an elliptical orbit around the sun in accordance with Kepler's laws. It is also more accurate to say that the earth and moon together revolve about their common center of mass, rather than saying that the moon revolves about the earth. This common center of mass lies beneath the earth's surface, about 3,000 mi (4800 km) from the earth's center.

The Lunar Month

The moon was studied, and its apparent motions through the sky recorded, beginning in ancient times. The Babylonians and the Maya, for example, had remarkably precise calendars for eclipses and other astronomical events. Astronomers now recognize different kinds of months, such as the synodic month of 29 days, 12 hr, 44 min, the period of the lunar phases, and the sidereal month of 27 days, 7 hr, 43 min, the period of lunar revolution around the earth.

The Lunar Orbit and Phases

As seen from above the earth's north pole, the moon moves in a counterclockwise direction with an average orbital speed of about 0.6 mi/sec (1 km/sec). Because the lunar orbit is elliptical, the distance between the earth and the moon varies periodically as the moon revolves in its orbit. At perigee, when the moon is nearest the earth, the distance is about 227,000 mi (365,000 km); at apogee, when the moon is farthest from the earth, the distance is about 254,000 mi (409,000 km). The average distance is about 240,000 mi (385,000 km), or about 60 times the radius of the earth itself. The plane of the moon's orbit is tilted, or inclined, at an angle of about 5° with respect to the ecliptic. The line dividing the bright and dark portions of the moon is called the terminator.

As the moon orbits the earth, the amount of its illuminated surface that can be seen from the earth changes. When none of the lighted half can be seen, because the moon is between the earth and sun, the moon is said to be new. For a few days before and after a new moon we can see a small part, or crescent, of the lighted half. When the moon has completed half its orbit from new moon to new moon, it is on the opposite side of the earth from the sun and we see the entire lighted half, or the full moon. When the moon has completed either one quarter or three quarters of its orbit from new moon to new moon, half the lighted side, the half-moon, is visible. The half-moon between the new and full moon is the first quarter and that between the full and new moon is the last quarter. Between a full moon and half-moon we see more than half the lighted side, or a gibbous moon. A blue moon is a second full moon in a calendar month; a black moon is a second new moon in a calendar month, or a calendar month with no full moon.

Retarded Lunar Motion

Due to the earth's rotation, the moon appears to rise in the east and set in the west, like all other heavenly bodies; however, the moon's own orbital motion carries it eastward against the stars. This apparent motion is much more rapid than the similar motion of the sun. Hence the moon appears to overtake the sun and rises on an average of 50 minutes later each night. There are many variations in this retardation according to latitude and time of year. In much of the Northern Hemisphere, at the autumnal equinox, the harvest moon occurs; moonrise and sunset nearly coincide for several days around full moon. The next succeeding full moon, called the hunter's moon, also shows this coincidence.

Solar and Lunar Eclipses

Although an optical illusion causes the moon to appear larger when it is near the horizon than when it is near the zenith, the true angular size of the moon's diameter is about 1/2°, which also happens to be the sun's apparent diameter. This coincidence makes possible total eclipses of the sun in which the solar disk is exactly covered by the disk of the moon. An eclipse of the moon occurs when the earth's shadow falls onto the moon, temporarily blocking the sunlight that causes the moon to shine. Eclipses can occur only when the moon, sun, and earth are arranged along a straight line—lunar eclipses at full moon and solar eclipses at new moon.

Tidal Influence of the Moon

The gravitational influence of the moon is chiefly responsible for the tides of the earth's oceans, the twice-daily rise and fall of sea level. The ocean tides are caused by the flow of water toward the two points on the earth's surface that are instantaneously directly beneath the moon and directly opposite the moon. Because of frictional drag, the earth's rotation carries the two tidal bulges slightly forward of the line connecting earth and moon. The resulting torque slows the earth's rotation while increasing the moon's orbital velocity. As a result, the day is getting longer and the moon is moving farther away from the earth. The moon also raises much smaller tides in the solid crust of the earth, deforming its shape. The tidal influence of the earth on the moon was responsible for making the moon's periods of rotation and revolution equal, so that the same side of the moon always faces earth.

Physical Characteristics

The study of the moon's surface increased with the invention of the telescope by Galileo in 1610 and culminated in 1969 when the first human actually set foot on the moon's surface. The physical characteristics and surface of the moon thus have been studied telescopically, photographically, and more recently by instruments carried by manned and unmanned spacecraft (see space probe and space exploration). The moon's diameter is about 2,160 mi (3,476 km) at the moon's equator, somewhat more than 1/4 the earth's diameter. The moon has about 1/81 the mass of the earth and is 3/5 as dense. On the moon's surface the force of gravitation is about 1/6 that on earth. It has been established that the moon completely lacks an atmosphere, but several space probes have found evidence of water ice in the soil. At its most extreme, the surface temperature can rise to above 125 degrees Celsius (257 degrees Fahrenheit) at lunar noon at the equator and can sink below -245 degrees Celsius (-409 degrees Fahrenheit) at night in the northern polar region. The gross surface features of the moon are visible to the unaided eye and were first studied telescopically in 1610 by Galileo.

Surface Features

The lunar surface is divided into the mountainous highlands and the large, generally roughly circular plains called maria (sing. mare; from Lat.,=sea) by early astronomers, who erroneously believed them to be bodies of water. The largest of the mare, Oceanus Procellarum or the Ocean of Storms, is rectangular in shape, however. The smooth floors of the maria, varying from flat to gently undulating, are covered by a thin layer of powdered rock that darkens them and accounts for the moon's low albedo (only 7% of the incident sunlight is reflected back, the rest being absorbed). The brighter regions on the moon are the mountainous highlands, where the terrain is rough and strewn with rocky rubble. The lunar mountain ranges, with heights up to 25,000 ft (7800 m), are comparable to the highest mountains on earth but in general are not very steep. The highlands are densely scarred by thousands of craters—shallow circular depressions, usually ringed by well-defined walls and often possessing a central peak. Craters range in diameter from a few feet to many miles, and in some regions there are so many that they overlap or several smaller craters lie within a large crater. Craters are also found on the maria, although there are nowhere near as many as in the lunar highlands. Other prominent surface features include the rilles and rays. Rilles are sinuous, canyonlike clefts found near the edges of mountain ranges. Rays are bright streaks radiating outward from certain craters, such as Tycho.

Mare and highland rocks differ in both appearance and chemical content. For example, mare rocks are richer in iron and poorer in aluminum than highland rocks. The maria consist largely of basalt, i.e., igneous rock formed from magma. In the highlands the majority of the rocks are breccias—conglomerates formed from basaltic rock and often studded with small, green, glassy spheres. These spheres probably were formed as the spray of molten rock, originally melted by the heat of meteorite impact, recongealed in midflight. The exposure ages of some rocks (the time their surfaces have been exposed to the action of cosmic rays that produce radioactive isotopes) are as short as 50 million years, much shorter than their crystallization ages. These rocks may have been shifted in position by meteorite impact or seismic activity (moonquakes). However, present lunar seismic activity is very low, corroborating the image of the moon as an essentially static, nonevolving world.

Internal Structure

Diffraction of seismic waves provided the first clear-cut evidence for a lunar crust, mantle, and core analogous to those of the earth. The lunar crust is about 45 mi (70 km) thick, making the moon a rigid solid to a greater depth than the earth. The inner core has a radius of about 600 mi (1,000 km), about 2/3 of the radius of the moon itself. The internal temperature decreases from 830 degrees Celsius (1,530 degrees Fahrenheit) at the center to 170 degrees Celsius (340 degrees Fahrenheit) near the surface. The heat traveling outward near the lunar surface is about half that of the earth but still twice that predicted by current theory. This heat flow is directly related to the rate of internal energy production, so that the internal temperature profile provides information about long-lived radio isotopes and the moon's thermal evolution. The heat-flow measurements indicate that the moon's radioactive content is higher than that of the earth. The moon's magnetic field is a million times weaker than that of the earth, but it varies by a factor of 20 from point to point on the surface. Certain rocks retain a high magnetization, indicating that they crystallized in the presence of magnetic fields much higher than those presently existing on the moon. Mascons are large concentrations of unusually high density that are located below certain of the maria. The mascons may have been created by the implantation of very dense, iron-rich meteorites, whose impact formed the overlying mare basins.

Formation and Evolution

It is now most commonly believed that moon formed when an object (sometimes called Theia after the mother of Selene, goddess of the moon) collided with the young earth. One theory holds that when a Mars-sized body impacted the earth the cores of the earth and object merged in the earth while material from the crust and mantle was blasted into orbit around the earth and later accreted to form the moon. Another theory holds that the body was larger and faster, delivering a glancing blow and contributing relatively little material to the earth-moon system that it created. After the moon's crust formed, subsequent impact of very large meteorites depressed the mare basins, at the same time thrusting up the surrounding crust to form the highlands. The mare basins later filled with lava flow, which in turn was covered by a thin layer of lunar "soil"—fine rock dust pulverized by the very slow mechanisms of lunar erosion (thermal cycling, solar wind, and micrometeorites). The craters were probably also formed by meteorite bombardment rather than by internal volcanic action as once believed. The rays surrounding the craters are material ejected during the impacts that formed the craters. The moon's rock types are correlated with its major geological periods.

Bibliography
  • See Moore, P.;Cattermole, P. J., The Craters of the Moon (1967).
  • Thomas, D., Moon (1970).
  • G. Gamow, The Moon (rev. ed. 1971).
  • Taylor, S. R., Lunar Science (1975).
  • French, B. M., The Moon Book (1977).
  • Hartmann, W. K., The Origins of the Moon (1986).
  • Brunner, B., Moon: A Brief History (2010).
The Columbia Encyclopedia, © Columbia University Press 2017

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